We all know that even after his death, Orson Welles was able to block Ted Turner from colorizing his motion picture classic about the life of "Charles Foster Kane", but Welles wasn't the person who created the image seen below for 1941's, "Citizen Kane". That image was the work of Cinematographer Gregg Toland.
In 2003, Gregg Wesley Toland was voted one of the ten most influential cinematographers in history, by the 8,400 members of the "International Cinematographers Guild" with its membership throughout the world.
According to the website, NFI:
a cinematographer, also called the director of photography (DOP), is the crew chief that is responsible for the camera and light crews. Cinematographers are masters of cinematography--the art of visual storytelling used in films and television.
Briefly, Gregg Toland was born on May 29, 1904, in Charleston, Illinois. In 1910, his now divorced mother moved to Los Angeles, and in 1919, 15-years-old Gregg started working as an office boy for the Fox Film Corporation, a studio owned by William Fox, that had only been founded four-years earlier. In 1920, Toland became an assistant camera man, but the work that he is remembered for, began six-years later.
This is not a biography of the man, but chosen examples of Gregg Wesley Toland's imagery taken from some of the 68 motion pictures he filmed.
It is always best to start at the beginning and that found Gregg Toland receiving no credit for any of his cinematography work, but being trained by the future three-time "Academy Award" winning cinematographer Arthur Edeson, pictured below. Who among other films was the DOP for 1930's, "All Quiet on the Western Front", 1931's, "Frankenstein", 1932's, "The Old Dark House", 1933's, "The Invisible Man", 1935's, "Mutiny on the Bounty", 1941's, "The Maltese Falcon", and 1942's, "Casablanca".
Working with Arthur Edeson, one of Gregg Toland's earliest work was a horror mystery still referenced today in cinematography classes.
THE BAT released on March 14, 1926
The film was directed by Roland West, who also directed 1925's, "The Monster" starring Lon Chaney, Sr.
The sets were designed and built by William Cameron Menzies, the director of the 1936, H.G. Wells', science fiction classic, "Things to Come", the 1953 science fiction cult feature, "Invaders from Mars", and the man who burnt down Atlanta, Georgia, in 1939's, "Gone with the Wind". My article, "William Cameron Menzies: Art Director, Production Designer and Motion Picture Director", will be found at:
Menzies sets became part of the mood for this haunted house mystery used by cinematographer Arthur Edeson and his trainee Gregg Toland.
TONIGHT OR NEVER released December 17, 1931
Melvyn Douglas portrayed "Jim Fletcher". Douglas got the role, his first on-screen appearance, because he had played it on the Broadway stage in the original November 8, 1930 through June 1931, production.
Between director Mervyn LeRoy's direction and Gregg Toland's cinematography, several scenes were considered to vulgar, even for pre-motion picture code America, by Paul Breen and the Hays Office Censors. Especially noted by Breen and removed, was a love sequence between Swanson and Douglas.
Wallace Beery portrayed "Terry Brennan". The same year that Dressler won her "Oscar", Beery received his "Best Actor" "Academy Award", opposite Jackie Cooper for 1931's, "The Champ". The "Academy of Motion Pictures Arts and Sciences" held the awards for both 1930 and 1931 in one ceremony. Berry and Cooper co-starred in the 1934 version of author Robert Lewis Stevenson's "Treasure Island", and back in 1925, Beery portrayed "Professor George Edward Challenger", in stop-motion animator Willis O'Brien's version of author Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's, "The Lost World".
Maureen O'Sullivan portrayed "Pat Severn". Nine motion pictures prior to this one, O'Sullivan had first portrayed "Jane Parker", opposite Johnny Weissmuller, in 1932's, "Tarzan the Ape Man". That pre-motion picture code movie contains a total nude swimming scene by the actress. Two movies after this feature would be her second "Tarzan" film, 1934's, "Tarzan and His Mate".
Opposite March in this film was Ukrainian Swedish, Russian born, actress Anna Sten portraying "Katusha Maslova".
The story is about a Russian nobleman who seduces an innocent peasant girl and abandons her. Years later, she is on trial as a criminal and he is in the jury blaming himself for causing her life of crime.
The same Joseph Breen of the Hays Office Censors, wrote in a personal letter to Will H. Hayes:
Though dealing with a sex affair and its attendant consequences, the story has been handled with such fine emphasis on the moral values of repentance and retribution, as to emerge with a definite spiritual quality. We feel that this picture could, in fact, serve as a model for the proper treatment of the element of illicit sex in pictures.
In short, Toland's filming of sex in 1934, had morale value for the American viewing audience, but his filming of sex in 1931, the exact same way, didn't.
Frederic March portrayed "Jean Valjean/Champmathieu", Charles Laughton portrayed "Inspector Emile Javert", Sir Cedric Harwicke portrayed "Bishop Bienvenue", Rochelle Hudson portrayed "Cosette", Francis Drake portrayed "Eponine", and John Beal portrayed "Marius".
At the ceremony, Toland joined Ray June for director Howard Hawks' "Barbary Coast", and Victor Miller for Cecil B. DeMile's "The Crusades" in the category. All three lost to a write-in entry, Hal Mohr, for directors Max Reinhardt and William Dieterle's version of William Shakespeare's "A Midsummer Night's Dream".
MAD LOVE released on July 12, 1935
Colin Clive portrayed pianist "Stephen Orlac". Two feature films earlier had found the actor in 1935's, "Bride of Frankenstein". Clive followed this feature with the 1935 comedy, "The Man Who Broke the Bank at Monte Carlo", co-starring with Ronald Colman and Joan Bennett. My article, "Colin Clive: Henry, Not Victor Frankenstein and Alcoholism", may be read at:
Karl Freund was born in Bohemia, Austria-Hungry, and worked in that country's motion picture industry as both a director and cinematographer. As a cinematographer it was Freund that filmed director Fritz Lang's classic science fiction work, 1927's, "Metropolis". When Karl Freund came to the United States, he was the cinematographer on 1931's "Dracula", and an uncredited second director on that feature. As a director only, he filmed Boris Karloff's, 1932, "The Mummy".
In that role of a director only, Karl Freund's 20th and last feature film in that position was "Mad Love".
The original cinematographer was Chester A. Lyons. Lyons had started work in 1917 and "Mad Love" would be his 76th feature film out of the 79 that would make-up his career. However, Freund kept criticizing his work, and the two clashed over filming the movie. Karl Freund complained to producer John W. Considine, Jr., Lyons was fired, and the director's new choice, Gregg Toland, hired.
However, there were still problems and tensions on set, because "cinematographer" Karl Freund, could not stop "making suggestions" to cinematographer Gregg Toland. However, the majority of what is seen on-screen is Toland's work.
According to actress Frances Drake, as quoted in author Gregory William Mank's, 2001, "Hollywood Cauldron: Thirteen Horror Films from the Genre's Golden Age", even the producer got into the act:
Freund wanted to be the cinematographer at the same time. You never knew who was directing. The producer was dying to, to tell you the truth, and of course he had no idea of directing.
The following are excellent examples of the Gregg Toland's work on "Mad Love".
This was Gregg Toland's 1st of 7 motion pictures with director William Wyler. Wyler's previous motion picture was the 1935 comedy, "The Gay Deception", co-starring actor, Francis Lederer, and actress Francis Dee. His next film would be author Sinclair Lewis', "Dodsworth", starring Walter Huston and Ruth Chatterton.
The motion picture's cast included the original young actors portraying "The Dead End Kids" in Kingsley's play. They would go on to be known as the "Little Tough Guys", the "East Side Kids", and then the "Bowery Boys". As the group changed over the years on screen there was one exception, actor Huntz Hall.
THE GOLDWYN FOLLIES released on February 2, 1938
Instead of Busby Berkeley choreographing the dancing. Samuel Goldwyn used George Balanchine, a Russian born ballet dancer. Balanchine worked on Broadway as a choreographer for strictly ballet sequences. His two most famous are from Richard Rodgers, 1936, "On Your Toes". They are the widely known, "Slaughter on 10th Avenue", and "Zenobia Pas de Deux". George Balanchine's only previous motion picture work as a choreographer was in the British film, 1929's, "Dark Red Roses". That picture contained, as does this feature, a ballet sequence.
It was up to Gregg Toland to film the picture and musical sequences as if they were being shot for a Busby Berkeley motion picture.
just isn't funny enough to justify the very queer picture of American politics and society it presents.
About Gary Cooper:
the picture's greatest asset, has his moments of diminishing returns when he seems to be quoting himself, or when, utterly forsaken by the authors and the director, he looks about helplessly, like a ghost who wonders if he isn't haunting the wrong house.
Perhaps the problem with the motion picture was with the director, or should I say directors? The credited on-screen director was H.C. Porter, this was only his sixth of twenty-two films through 1957. Apparently, producer Samuel Goldwyn thought Porter needed help after he viewed the rushes. Goldwyn replaced Porter with the uncredited Stuart Heiseler, a film editor turned director, on only his second motion picture as a director, but Goldwyn still didn't like what he saw. So, to clean-up the motion picture, Goldwyn now assigned the uncredited William Wyler.
Perhaps the problem wasn't with directing, but with the screenplay? The credited original story was by Leo Mc Carey and Frank R. Adams. While the actual screenplay was credited to S.N. Behrman and Sonya Levien. However, there were also thirteen uncredited contributors to that screenplay, before it was approved.
Whatever the reason, it didn't come from Gregg Toland's cinematography.
This motion picture version of authoress Emily Bronte's love story was directed by William Wyler. Wyler had just released 1938's "Jezebel".
The first credited writer was Charles MacArthur, who had adapted a Rudyard Kipling poem into the screen story for 1939's, "Gunga Din". The second credited screenplay writer was playwright, Ben Height, who among other work, had created the screen story for producer Howard Hughes', 1932, "Scarface", directed by Howard Hawks.
The one uncredited contributing writer, was John Huston. This was two-years before his first directing assignment, 1941's, "The Maltese Falcon", but who in 1938, had co-written "Jezebel", and "The Amazing Dr. Clitterhouse" starring Edward G. Robinson, Humphrey Bogart, and Claire Trevor.
Huston followed this picture as main screenplay writer of the Bette Davis and Paul Muni, 1939, "Juarez". My article on four of Huston's sometimes overlooked feature films, "JOHN HUSTON: 'Moby Dick', 1956, 'The Barbarian and the Geisha', 1958, 'Freud: The Secret Passion', 1962, 'The List of Adrian Messenger', 1963", can be read:
Sir Laurence Olivier portrayed "Heathcliff". Seven months before Hitler invaded Poland and the United Kingdom entered the Second World War, Olivier appeared, opposite Sir Ralph Richardson in 1939's, "Q Planes". He portrayed a British Secret Service agent investing a German spy ring.
INTERMEZZO released on September 22, 1939
Playing opposite Ingrid Bergman as "Anita Hoffman", was British actor, Leslie Howard as "Holger Brandt". Immediately after this pictures release, American audiences saw Howard as "Ashley Wilkes", in 1939's, "Gone with the Wind".
The screenplay was based upon a, 1936, Swedish motion picture about the love affair of a pianist, Bergman, who is teaching a young girl, and the girl's violinist father, Howard. Whose infidelity with the pianist almost ends in tragedy for his daughter.
Henry Fonda portrayed one of his most iconic roles, that of John Steinbeck's, "Tom Joad". He had just portrayed "Frank James", for the first time, in 1939's, "Jesse James", opposite Tyrone Power in the title role.
The following stills of Gregg Toland's work begs the question why he wasn't nominated by the "Motion Picture Academy of Arts and Sciences"?
THE WESTERNER premiered in London, England, on September 5, 1940
The setting is 1882, Vingaroon, Texas, and the screenplay is about the legendary "Judge Roy Bean", portrayed by Walter Brennan, in his "Best Supporting Actor" "Academy Award" winning role. As "The Only Law West of the Pecos". "Bean" is in love, from afar, with the English actress, he never met, "Lillie Langtry", portrayed by Lillian Bond.
Ford and Nichols moved the O'Neill plays forward to 1940, just after England declared war on Germany. This is actually a character study of the crew of the merchant ship "Glencairn" as it heads to war within Nazi submarine filled waters.
According to Wallace Rodger Dale, in his 1976, "Gregg Toland--His Contributions to Cinema", for University Microfilms International, Ann Arbor, Michigan. The cinematographer used back-projection to create a technique he called, deep-focus composition, keeping both the foreground and background in focus. Toland would improve on the technique for the Orson Welles motion picture.
Another interesting result of Toland's style of filming Nichols' screenplay, was to turn the O'Neill plays into a Second World War Film-Noir not planned by either the director, or studio.
Herman J. Mankiewicz, by the time he wrote the main treatment for "Citizen Kane", had been the head of Paramount Studios scenario department and written and contributed to 80-motion pictures starting in 1926 with director Tod Browning's, "Road to Mandalay", starring Lon Chaney. Among his screenplays leading to this classic feature film were 1936's, "San Francisco" starring Clark Gable and Jeanette MacDonald, 1939's, "The Wizard of Oz", Mankiewicz wrote the opening and closing farm sequences, and 1940's, "Comrade X", starring Clark Gable and Hedy Lamarr.
However, there were three uncredited contributors to the screenplay.
John Houseman, a member of the "Mercury Theatre", contributed to the screenplay. He had been collaborating with Welles since the actor had agreed to star in a 1935 production of the play, "Panic", by Archibald MacLeish, that Houseman was producing. The play co-starred Houseman's ex-wife, Zita Johnann, known for Universal Pictures, 1932, "The Mummy", starring Boris Karloff.
This was also Mollie Kent's only written screenplay. She went on to be a script supervisor for films such as 1954's, "Seven Brides for Seven Brothers", 1957's, Mickey Spillane's "My Gun is Quick", William Castle's, 1958, "Macabre", director John Frankenheimer's, 1962, "The Manchurian Candidate", and director Gene Kelly's, 1969, "Hello Dolly!".
Although Orson Welles claimed otherwise, there is enough in the screenplay to clearly state that "Charles Foster Kane" was based upon publisher William Randolph Hearst. The following are two major examples, forgetting about the building of "Kane's", "Xanadu", in Florida, as compared to the building of "Hearst's" "San Simeon Estate", in California.
The first is a scene in "Kane's" newspaper office in which two points are made:
"Kane" is into "Yellow Journalism" and talks about starting a war in Cuba to sell newspapers.
The second obvious point in the Welles-Mankiewicz screenplay is the character of "Charles Foster Kane's" second wife, "Susan Alexander Kane", as portrayed by "B" actress Dorothy Comingore, below.
It should be noted, that according to Richard Meryman, in his 1978 biography "Mank: The Wit, World and the Life of Herman Mankiewicz". Orson Welles' co-screenplay writer had traveled in William Randolph Hearst's circle for years, but came to hate him for being exiled from that same social circle effecting his career. Raising the question, was Joseph Cotton's, "Jedediah Leland", partly autobiographical?
Many sites state that Orson Welles had never made a motion picture and was completely in the dark about how to do it. That is not a completely accurate statement as he had shot the already mentioned 1938, "Too Much Johnson", and four-short subjects, before making 1941's, "Citizen Kane". Along with a 1940 documentary on the making of the motion picture.
All I could locate about Miriam Geiger, who could be either a woman or man, was, according to IMDb, was as a writer who came up with the 1939 story for the forgotten motion picture, "Woman Doctor". Otherwise, Miriam Geiger's on-screen history only includes 6-scripts for televisions "Lassie", between 1957 and 1959, and two scripts, one in 1960, and one in 1961, for the television version of "National Velvet".
Enter Gregg Toland:.
Orson Welles knew of Gregg Toland and would have liked him on his picture, but thought that was an impossibility for a novice director. However, in a May 14, 1970 interview between Welles and Dick Cavett, "Orson Welles Talking About 'Citizen Kane", Orson Welles stated that he considered Gregg Toland:
the greatest cameraman who ever livedIn that interview Welles explained to Cavett that Gregg Toland
came to my office and said, "I want to work in your picture. My name is Toland." And I said, "Why do you, Mr. Toland?" And he said, "Because you've never made a picture. You don't know what cannot be done." So I said, "But I really don't! Can you tell me?" And [Toland] said, "There's nothing to it." And [he] gave me a day-and-a-half lesson—and he was right!
Peter Bogdanovich and Jonathan Rosenbaum in their 1992, "This Is Orson Wells", quoted him as staying that Toland:
never tried to impress us that he was doing any miracles," Welles recalled. "I was calling for things only a beginner would have been ignorant enough to think anybody could ever do, and there he was, doing them.
According to Patrick Ogle's, 1972, "Technical and Aesthetic Influences Upon the Development of Deep Focus Cinematography in the United States", Screen Magazine, Volume 13, Number 1:
The following is a little technical about Gregg Toland's filming of "Citizen Kane". I mentioned above, that "The Long Voyage Home" was a testing ground for Gregg Toland's deep-focus compositions.
The main way to achieve deep focus was closing down the aperture which required increasing the lighting intensity, lenses with better light transmission and faster film stock. On Citizen Kane, the cameras and coated lenses used were of Toland's own design working in conjunction with engineers from Caltech. His lenses were treated with Vard Opitcoat to reduce glare and increase light transmission.
Returning to Roger Dale Wallace's, 1976, "Gregg Toland--His Contributions to Cinema", the author mentions that Toland
used the Kodak Super XX film stock, which was, at the time, the fastest film available, with an ASA film speed of 100. Toland had worked closely with a Kodak representative during the stock's creation before its release in October 1938, and was one of the first cinematographers using it heavily on set.
Above, Orson Welles and Gregg Toland working on filming "Citizen Kane". Below, the Final Ending Title Card on the completed motion picture.
Orson Welles came from the world of legitimate theatre and not knowing that sets are lighted from above on motion pictures, had the lighting technicians light the sets from ground level and Gregg Toland left that mistake alone and filmed the motion picture.
The following are a selection of images shot by Gregg Toland to win the "Best Cinematography" "Academy Award" for "Citizen Kane".
Before Robert Wise became a motion picture director, he was a film editor, and it was a problem on Orson Welles' "The Magnificent Ambersons", that gave him his first chance to direct. That story is a small part of my article, "Director Robert Wise: Horror, Science Fiction and the Greek Homer", available for your reading pleasure at:
Gregg Toland next filmed his sixth motion picture with director William Wyler.
THE LITTLE FOXES premiered in New York City on August 20, 1941
Playwright Lillian Hellman had adapted her 1939 play into a screenplay. Set in 1900, this is the story about a woman trapped because of her sex, in an era where men look only upon their sons as legal heirs.
Bette Davis portrayed "Regina Hubbard Giddens". Davis was just in the 1941 comedy "The Bride Came C.O.D.", co-starring James Cagney, and followed this drama with another comedy, 1942's, "The Man Who Came to Dinner".
Herbert Marshall portrayed "Horace Giddens". Marshall had co-starred with Davis in William Wyler's, 1940 "The Letter".
Teresa Wright portrayed "Alexandra Giddens". This was Wright's first on-screen appearance and she followed it with William Wyler's, 1942, "Mrs. Miniver".
Richard Carlson portrayed "David Hewitt". Carlson had just co-starred in 1941's, "Hold That Ghost", starring Bud Abbott and Lou Costello. My article, "Richard Carlson the Academic Turned Actor", is found at:
THE OUTLAW premiered in San Francisco on February 5, 1943
Although Howard Hughes is shown as the motion picture's director, Howard Hawks is listed as its uncredited director and many think he directed the majority of the motion picture.
For those of my readers interested in "Billy the Kid", my article, "BILLY THE KID: Hollywood Style" is found at:
Walter Huston portrayed "Doc Holliday", somehow added to this story by Hughes. The actor had just portrayed James Cagney's father in 1942's, "Yankee Doodle Dandy".
The basic story has "Billy" and "Doc" as friends, but both men are fighting over "Rio's" love. While "Doc" is also the friend of "Pat Garrett", who is torn between "Billy" being an outlaw and his friend at the same time.
The following are examples of Gregg Toland's imagery:
Toland was commissioned with the rank of "Lieutenant" and assigned to the Navy Photo Unit under the direction of "Commander John Ford".
Gregg Toland was assigned to make a documentary style propaganda motion picture about the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. He would co-direct the film with Ford, but it was Toland who recreated scenes of the attack that are blended seamlessly with actual footage that the audience and the "Office of the Coordinator of Information" could not tell which was which.
Toland's original version, "December 7th: The Movie", runs 82-minutes. Ford would cut it down to 32-minutes and that shorter version would win the "Best Documentary (Short Subject)" "Academy Award" in 1944.
I could not locate stills of the prologue, or epilogue created by Gregg Toland for his original version of "December 7th". They were removed by Navy Commander John Ford with the help of Navy film-editor, Robert Parrish, to bring the film closer to its shorter running time.
Toland's prologue included actor Walter Huston, portraying "Uncle Sam", aka: "U.S.", in Honolulu, Hawaii, dictating to his secretary "Miss Kim" (I couldn't find the actresses name), a letter to someone named "Jonathan". "Uncle Sam's" dictation is interrupted by the arrival of "Mr. C", portrayed by Harry Davenport, the conscience of the "U.S.", and "Miss Kim" is dismissed. The two restart their friendly argument that started back during the writing of the United States Constitution. "Mr. C" claims it's time to "go over the books" for the year 1941, because "there's some balancing to be done".
Gregg Toland next recreates a story about the impact of American agriculture from Hawaii on Japan. How it was controlled by the "Big Five", a group of sugar cane producers and the major political power within the Hawaiian Islands. That group imported laborers from Japan to work the cane fields and the majority of them would become United States citizens. This leads into a discussion of Japanese Americans on the island and the showing a group of Japanese American students singing "God Bless America", and reciting "The Pledge of Allegiance".
Gregg Toland's epilogue had actor Dana Andrews portraying the "Ghost of a U.S. Sailor Killed at Pearl Harbor". The "Ghost" tells the viewing audience:
So that's the story of Pearl Harbor.....It's all true because I know, I was there.
The sailor turns and walking through a military grave yard is joined by a soldier from the First World War, portrayed by Paul Hurst. As the two continue to walk through the cemetery, it is mentioned that soldiers from other American conflicts are also buried in it, but the sailor says he has a hope for the future without war when this one ends. However, the soldier remains skeptical.
For those of my readers interested in this documentary, the original Gregg Toland version, as of this writing, can be found at:
The idea used by Gregg Toland in 1943 to recreate the people and events around the Pearl Harbor attack for propaganda purposes was not new. The idea was first used in 1942, for propaganda in Japan, with the recreation of the attack by Eiji Tsuburaya, the special effects supervisor for 1954's, "Gojira". Both films are part of my article, "I BOMBED PEARL HARBOR: December 7, 1941 in Motion Pictures", found at:
After the Second World War ended, inadvertently Gregg Toland found himself in a second war, not of bullets and flying bombs, but of words and racism.
WALT DISNEY'S "SONG OF THE SOUTH" premiered in Atlanta, Georgia, on November 12, 1946
The motion picture was part animation and part live action.
The animation was directed by Wilfred Jackson, who like most of the animation directors for Disney, from 1921 into 1937, were uncredited and animators themselves. However, that changed when Walt made 1937's, "Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs", and Wilfred Jackson received full animation director's credit as one of three sequence directors with William Cottrell, and David Hand.
The screenplay for "Song of the South" was based upon one of Walt's childhood favorites, "The Uncle Remus" stories by Joel Chandler Harris. That screenplay is actually two screenplays in one, live action, and animated.
The animated portion was was written by Bill Peet, Ralph Wright, and Veron Stalings. All Disney animation writers and animators that had worked on the same films as Wilfred Jackson.
The live action portion writers were:
Dalton S. Reymond, this was his only screenplay, he had been the "technical advisor" on 1938's, "Jezebel", and 1941's, "The Little Foxes".
Morton Grant, wrote mainly "B" Westerns and Mysteries.
Maurice Rapf, the story creator for Wallace Beery's, 1937, "The Bad Man of Brimstone", and the Ann Sheridan and Richard Carlson, 1939, "Winter Carnival". Rapf would work on Walt Disney's, 1948, "So Dear to My Heart", and 1950's, "Cinderella".
The live actions sequences were filmed by Gregg Toland.
All the original posters for "Song of the South" have no actors names on it, because Walt Disney was promoting the feature as another animated film.
Bobby Driscoll portrayed "Johnny". For Walt Disney, Driscoll also appeared in 1948's, "So Dear to My Heart", portrayed "Jim Hawkins" in 1950's, "Treasure Island", and was the voice of "Peter Pan", in 1953. His life seemed perfect to America and 1950's boys dreamed of being Driscoll fighting pirates, but Hollywood lies. As my article, "Bobby Driscoll: The Darkside of Child Acting, 'Peter Pan's Real Neverland" reveals at:
Within the African American community, at the time of the picture's original release, it was debated if southern born Walter Elias Disney wasn't a racist, because stories going back to the 1920's seem to imply that about him.
"Song of the South" was re-released in 1986 and faced backlash from both the NAACP and CORE. Although my reader can find the film in Canada, the United Kingdom, and other countries, Disney still will not re-release it in the United States.
Below are images of Gregg Toland's work:
"Song of the South" was immediately followed by Gregg Toland's seventh and final motion picture with director William Wyler.
Former Army Photographic Unit Major William Wyler and Navy Photographic Unit Lieutenant Gregg Toland returned to the Second World War, but not to the fighting of far too many war movies, but to the returning veterans who gave the war ....
THE BEST YEARS OF OUR LIVES premiered in New York City on November 21, 1946
Wyler had filmed and released, his "Academy Award" winning documentary, 1944's, "The Memphis Belle: A Story of a Flying Fortress", filmed partly by him while accompanying the crew into combat on one of their bombing missions over Germany.
The screenplay was by Robert E Sherwood, a Canadian First World War veteran, and a playwright. Sherwood's plays that were turned into motion pictures included, "Waterloo Bridge", his Pulitzer Prize winning, "Idiot's Delight", and "Abe Lincoln in Illinois".
The screenplay was based upon historical novelist MacKinlay Kantor's, 1945, novella of the same name.
Starting with "Best Picture", and "Best Director", the motion picture was nominated for Ten "Academy Awards", and won Nine. Gregg Toland's cinematography was not nominated by the Academy.
The screenplay focused on three returning veterans, who meet on a military aircraft that is taking them back to their same hometown. The three are "USAAF bombardier Captain Fred Derry", portrayed by Dana Andrews, "U.S. Army Sergeant Al Stephenson", portrayed by Frederic March, and "U.S. Navy Petty Officer Homer Parrish", portrayed by Harold John Avery Russell.
Harold Russell was an Army demolition instructor who lost both his hands from a defective fuse while teaching others. He was also the first non-professional actor to win an "Academy Award", as the "Best Supporting Actor".
With frank honesty, we see "Fred" deal with what we now know as PTSD flashbacks and a wife who goes out with other men. "Al" is given a promotion at the bank, but deals with alcoholism. "Homer" worries that "Wilma" will no longer want to marry a man with mechanical hands.
THE BISHOP'S WIFE premiered in London, England, on November 25, 1947
Producer Samuel Goldwyn changed the posters slightly, especially in the United States, and the box office increased approximately 25-percent.
Problems aside, Gregg Toland did his excellent cinematography work.
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