Multitalented William Cameron Menzies worked in and mastered ten motion picture disciplines. He first attended Yale University, followed by the University of Edinburgh, his parents were both Scottish immigrants, and after serving in the United States Army during the First World War. William Cameron Menzies finished his studies at the Art Students League of New York.
This is a very small look at some of the motion pictures that are part of the legacy of William Cameron Menzies.
Above, Production Designer Menzies is working on his designs for 1939's, "Gone with the Wind". His actual crew credit reads:
Production Designed by William Cameron Menzies
Art Direction by William Cameron Menzies
The position was the head of the "Art Department", but in this particular motion picture he was the Art Department.
DR. JEKYLL AND MR. HYDE premiered in New York City on March 18, 1920
By 1920, William Cameron Menzies had joined "Famous Players-Lasky", the forerunner of "Paramount Pictures". On this production starring John Barrymore, Menzies was listed as:
Art Direction by William Cameron Menzies, uncreditedIt should be noted that during the silent film era and into the 1930's. It was very common to find crew members listed as "Uncredited", even though they did the work and might be the only one in that technical position. In the case of this motion picture, there were two crew members under Menzies.
ROBIN HOOD released October 18, 1922
For the Douglas Fairbanks "Robin Hood", William Cameron Menzies was the uncredited Assistant Art Director to Art Director, Wilfred Buckland, five films before Buckland's retirement in 1929.
Producer, writer, and star, Douglas Fairbanks wanted an epic fantasy film, and it would have a final running time of two-hours-and-twenty-minutes.
William Cameron Menzies was both the Art Director and the Production Designer for "The Thief of Bagdad". He had first worked as a Production Designer on the 1918 motion picture "The Naulahka", for the Pathe Exchange".
According to biographer Eileen Whitford in her, 2007, biography of Douglas Fairbank's wife Mary Pickford, "Pickford: The Woman Who Made Hollywood". William Cameron Menzies was largely responsible for the entire production design and he closely followed the requirements of Mary's husband.
So what did this production look like?
Below is an aerial view of the Bagdad set designed by William Cameron Menzies.
In 1908, mystery writer Mary Roberts Rinehart wrote the novel "The Circular Staircase". In 1920,
Rinehart and Avery Hopwood turned her novel into a successful stage play entitled "The Bat". Now, six-years later, "The Bat", became a motion picture directed, without credit, by Roland West. Who wrote the screenplay, also without credit. Which is interesting, because Roland West was the film's producer, that he took credit for.
The interior of the mansion was constructed, on the United Artists sound stage in Hollywood, under the direction of Menzies. He enlisted scenic artist Harvey Meyers to paint dark shadows on the set to increase the mood. The result is the first true haunted house setting, even though there had been such films in the past.
The studio system still had many films in production being filmed as a silent feature, but upon the release, American audiences found themselves seeing hybrid pictures, part silent, part talkie. One such production was Douglas Fairbanks:
THE IRON MASK released on February 21, 1929
It would take until 1931 for William Cameron Menzies to finally move into the "Director's Chair" on a feature film.
THE SPIDER released on September 27, 1931
Billed as William C. Menzies, William Cameron Menzies co-directed the fantasy mystery motion picture "The Spider", with co-director, Kenneth McKenna.
Edmund Lowe stars as "Chatrand the Great", a magician who is trying to find out the identity of his amnesic assistant "Alexander", played by Howard Philips. "Alexander" is a real mind reader, but did he commit a series of murders wearing a Spider ring?
CHANDU THE MAGICIAN released on September 18, 1932
William C. Menzies was back as a co-director with Marcel Varnel. Also returning, as the radio and Sunday newspaper comic strip hero, "Chandu the Magician", was Edmund Lowe. Bela Lugosi portrayed "Roxor", the villain of the piece.
Menzies used every special effects trick he had learned for 1924's, "The Thief of Bagdad" and some more in this classic, overlooked, feature film. He also worked very closely with the credited Art Director, Max Parker, on the picture's look.
ALICE IN WONDERLAND released on December 22, 1933
If my reader has never seen this interesting motion picture, find it!
As the above poster indicates, "Paramount Pictures" used every available contract player on their lot. The screenplay was slightly based upon Lewis Carroll's "Alice in Wonderland", but more upon Carroll's sequel, "Through the Looking Glass". It was co-written by William Cameron Menzies and Joseph L. Mankiewicz.
The Art Direction was by William Cameron Menzies and he not only designed this production, but also designed all the costumes the actors wore. Which were made by Newt Jones with make-up by Wally Westmore.
Charlotte Henry had the title role.
My article, "Charlotte Henry: 1933's, 'Alice in Wonderland', and 1934's, 'Babes in Toyland", will be found at:
The following are some of the stars of the picture in Menzies costumes.
Above, Charlotte Henry and Richard "Skeets" Galliagher as "The White Rabbit".
Below, William Austin as "The Gryphon", Charlotte Henry, and Cary Grant as "The Mock Turtle".
Above, Charlotte Henry and Roscoe Karns as "Tweedlee" and Jack Oakie as "Tweedledum".
Below, W.C. Fields as "Humpty-Dumpty".
Above, Gary Cooper as the "White Knight".
The motion picture was a box office bomb and brought up the question, should live action fantasy with strange looking characters be made by the studios? The answer came with 1939's, "The Wizard of Oz".
THINGS TO COME released in the United Kingdom on February 20, 1936
The screenplay for "Things to Come" is one of only two actually written by H.G. Wells. The words of the characters and the story are his own and were transferred to the motion picture screen by Director, William Cameron Menzies, in this classic Science Fiction feature film.
My article, "H.G. Wells On the Motion Picture and Television Screens", can be read at:
The settings designer was Vincent Korda.
For the critical roles of "John Cabal" and "Oswald Cabal", William Cameron Menzies chose actor Raymond Massey.
Above, "John Cabal" in 1940, and in 1970. Below, "Oswald Cabal" in 2054.
The enemy is defeated in 1966, but the enemy in one last ditch attempt deployed a biographical gas weapon causing those exposed to it to have "The Wandering Sickness". Its victims walk around like zombies until they finally die from starvation.
Above the title card, in Ray Harryhausen's colorized version, giving the viewer the year the war ended and the "Wandering Sickness" began. Below, "Everytown" in 1970, under the control of a warlord just called "The Boss", played by Sir Ralph Richardson.
H.G. Wells was a socialist and biologist, but also a futurist and wrote several utopian novels and short stories. All of these traits are reflected in this screenplay and as in most of his works, science conquerors all. It is the scientists of the world that come together to save the planet in 1970, as "Wings Over the World", and use the gas of peace.
Peace comes to "Everytown" and "The Boss" dies. The film jumps to 2054 and the futuristic "Everytown". The scientists have built a giant canyon to send two people to the moon, but there are those who oppose such a plan and attempt to stop what the scientists considered human progress.
The space craft is launched to the moon as the crowds disperse and the picture ends with two fathers concerned for the safety of their children on their journey into the stars and mankind's future.
"Oswald Cabal", asks a question of his close friend, "Raymond Passworthy", whose family goes back to 1940, with "John Cabal" and "Pippa Passworthy", both "Passworthy's" are played by Edward Chapman:
All the universe or nothingness? Which shall it be, Passworthy? Which shall it be?
William Cameron Menzies initial cut of "Things To Come" ran two-hours-and-ten minutes. After the British Board of Censors had their look, the movie now ran one-hour-fifty-seven-minutes-and-thirteen-seconds. By the time of the British initial release, the picture ran one-hour-forty-eight-minutes-and-forty-one-seconds. When the American censors got their hands on the picture, the United States release, on April 18, 1936, now ran one-hour-thirty-six-minutes-and-thirty-one-seconds. When the motion picture was reissued in the United Kingdom in 1943, it ran only one-hour-twelve-minutes-and-thirteen-seconds. While the American cut was reduced to one-hour-thirty-two-minutes-and-forty-four-seconds.
So, what version of the film have you seen?
GONE WITH THE WIND the premiere was on December 15 1939, in Atlanta, Georgia
I started this article with a photograph of William Cameron Menzies working on his designs for the entire production of producer David O. Selznick's "Gone with the Wind". However, Menzies was also an uncredited Second Unit Director on the film.
William Cameron Menzies directed the doubles for stars Clark Gable and Vivian Leigh in the burning of Atlanta sequence. The buildings used were sets that Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer had originally planned to destroy for more lot space. The studio is located in Culver City, a small suburb of Los Angeles and space was always critical, but so was a spreading fire.
At the "12th Academy Awards", on February 29, 1940, William Cameron Menzies received the "Academy Honorary Award":
for outstanding achievement in the use of color for the enhancement of dramatic mood
in the production of "Gone with the Wind".
REBECCA released on March 21, 1940
The novel by Daphne Du Maurier, directed by the master, Alfred Hitchcock, and starring Sir Laurence Olivier and Joan Fontaine, is a classic motion picture containing the uncredited Art Direction of William Cameron Menzies.
FOREIGN CORRESPONDENT released on August 16, 1940
I mentioned that William Cameron Menzies mastered ten motion picture disciplines. For Alfred Hitchcock's, "Foreign Correspondent", his name is found under "Additional Crew", and credited for Special Production Effects. Today, he would be called the Special Effects Supervisor on the picture.
THE THIEF OF BAGDAD first released in the United States of December 5, 1940, and next in the United Kingdom on December 25, 1940
This was the "Korda Brother's" Christmas present to England, that had been under the "German Air Force Blitz" since three-months prior to the pictures release.
The motion picture was produced by three men, Alexander Korda, Zolton Korda, and William Cameron Menzies.
The motion picture had three credited directors, Ludwig Berger, Michael Powell, and Tim Whelen. The picture also had three uncredited directors, Alexander Korda, Zolton Korda, and William Cameron Menzies.
The motion pictures art director was the uncredited Vincent Korda.
There were four uncredited associate art directors, Ferdinand Bellin, W. Percy Day, William Cameron Menzies, and Frederick Pusey.
Why all of these credited and uncredited names?
The answer is the Second World War and the fact that Alexander Korda was running short of funds in England, because of the war. Which created the need to complete the motion picture in the safety of the United States. Enter co-producer and director William Cameron Menzies and Zolton Korda, who happened to be in the United States at the time. Along with American special effects director, Lawrence W. Butler.
With all its production problems, 1940's, "The Thief of Bagdad", remains the all-time most successful motion picture from the very successful Korda Brothers.
FOR WHOM THE BELL TOLLS premiered in New York City on July 14, 1943
For the seventh time as a Production Designer, William Cameron Menzies was dealing with an epic war film, not set during the American Civil War, but the Spanish Civil War. He had to work with actual locations in the California-Nevada, Sierra Nevada Mountain Range, and recreate them on a sound stage at the Hollywood, "Paramount Studio".
DUEL IN THE SUN a "Veterans Only" premier on December 29, 1946, in Van Nuys (Suburb of Los Angeles) , California
This was producer David O. Selznick's controversial Western that earned the nickname of "Lust in the Dust", because of the sexual heat being generated, between Jennifer Jones's character of "Pearl Chavez", and Gregory Peck's bad boy character of "Lewton 'Lewt' McCanles", that was driving the censors crazy.
Although the on-screen directing credit would remain with King Vidor, like many other major films, there were several uncredited directors. One was William Cameron Menzies, and another was David O. Selnick, himself. Along with other distinguished directors of the time, Josef von Sternberg, William Dieterle, Otto Bower, and Sidney Franklin.
Otto Bower and B. Reeves Eason were the credited second unit directors, but there were two uncredited second unit directors, William Cameron Menzies and Chester M. Franklin.
For those of my readers interested in the story line for the picture. I go into detail at the start of my article about co-star Gregory Peck, entitled, "Gregory Peck: Five Westerns-Five Different Characters", which will be found at:
Between "Duel and the Sun" and 1952, William Cameron Menzies worked twice as an Art Director, including director Frank Capra's, 1946, "It's a Wonderful Life". Directed two episodes of the television anthology series, "Fireside Theatre", and two "B" Westerns. As a Production Designer, Menzies designed those two "B" Westerns, and the 1948, Ingrid Bergman and Charles Boyer drama, "Arch of Triumph".
FU MANCHU AND THE ZAYAT KISS
In 1913, British author Sax Rohmer, published a short story entitled, "The Zayat Kiss". In it he introduced his evil character from the "Yellow Peril", the Chinese "Dr. Fu Manchu".
In 1952, the National Broadcasting Company (NBC) planned a weekly series based upon Rohmer's villain. A pilot was filmed Directed by William Cameron Menzies, starring John Carradine as "Fu Manchu", and Sir Cedric Hardwicke as his purser, "Scotland Yard Detective Nayland Smith". While, John Newland, the future host of televisions "One Step Beyond", was "Smith's Doctor Watson", "Dr. Petrie". The pilot is lost!
WE'RE NOT MARRIED released on July 11, 1952
Under the heading Additional Crew my reader will find the name William Cameron Menzies, who directed the montage sequence. Back in 1934, he directed a similar style montage sequence for Cecil B. DeMille's "Cleopatra", but without credit.
ANDROCLES AND THE LION premiered in Los Angles on October 30, 1952
The co-United Kingdom and United States production was designed by the credited Harry Horner, 1950's, "Red Planet Mars", and the uncredited William Cameron Menzies. The initial production was meant as a comedy based upon the George Bernard Shaw play. However, when it first was shown in the United States, nobody laughed and the film was considered a bore. Reshoots adding actresses in gauze dresses and a real lion failed to change any opinions, and according to actor, Alan Young, turned the picture into a "blood and guts" feature.
LA REGINA DI SABA (THE QUEEN OF SHEBA) released in Italy on November 6, 1952
William Cameron Menzies traveled to Italy to be the Art Director on this Italian historical film. Take a look at the complete cast and crew listing and Menzies is the only non-Italian name and he shares credit with Giulio Bongini, on his second motion picture.
Next, a Cult Science Fiction film and a misfired Horror movie.
INVADERS FROM MARS premiered in Detroit, Michigan, on April 9, 1953
The motion picture is both Directed by and with a Production Designed by William Cameron Menzies.
The story was from the uncredited John Tucker Battle, who wrote the Second World War movie, 1951's, "The Frogmen", starring Richard Widmark and Dana Andrews. It is said that his wife had a dream and Battle turned it into a story.
The screenplay was written by Richard Blake, who hadn't written a motion picture screenplay since 1940.
Helena Carter portrayed "Dr. Pat Blake". Carter's first motion picture was the 1947, film-noir, "Time Out of Mind", with sixth billing behind actor Leo G. Carroll and thirteen films later was her last, this motion picture.
Arthur Franz portrayed "Dr. Stuart Kelston". In 1951, Franz portrayed the title character in the comedy, "Abbott and Costello Meet the Invisible Man", that same year he took a "Flight to Mars" as an Earthman, back in 1949, he was a soldier in John Wayne's "Sands of Iwo Jima".
Jimmy Hunt portrayed "David MacLean". Sixteen-years old Hunt, had already appeared in thirty-two motion pictures by this feature. This month, September 2022, Hunt will be doing a guest appearance at "Cinecon", in Hollywood, with a new 4K print of "Invaders from Mars".
Above, left to right, Arthur Franz, Helena Carter, and Jimmy Hunt
Leif Erickson portrayed "David's" father, "Mr. George MacLean". Erickson started out as a band singer and trombone player, but became part of German emigree Max Reinhart's acting troupe. His first film was as a band singer, 1933's, "The Sweetheart of Signa Chi", but the actor is best known for portraying "Big John Cannon", on the television series, "The High Chaparral", from 1967 through 1971.
Hillary Brooke portrayed "David's" mother, "Mrs. George MacLean". Brooke started out as a "Show Girl", in 1937's, "New Faces of 1937", but co-starred with Basil Rathbone and Nigel Bruce in both 1943's, "Sherlock Holmes Faces Death", and 1945's, "The Woman in Green". The actress had an uncredited role in 1942's, "Sherlock Holmes and the Voice of Terror". Like Erickson, Brooke became known for her television work, she was a regular on "The Abbott and Costello Show", 1952 through 1953, appeared in twenty-six episodes of "My Little Margie", between 1952 and 1955, and had co-starred with Caesar Romero in the 1951 Science Fiction movie, "The Lost Continent".
Above, Hillary Brooke and Leif Erickson
Morris Ankrum portrayed "Army Colonel Fielding". Besides this Science Fiction entry, Ankrum appeared in 1950's, "Rocketship X-M", 1951's, "Flight to Mars" as a Martian, 1952's, "Red Planet Mars", 1956's, "Earth vs the Flying Saucers", 1957's, "KRONOS", 1957's, "The Beginning of the End", and 1957's, "The Giant Claw", and of course, this does not include all of his other genre appearances including twenty-two times playing a "Judge" on televisions "Perry Mason". My article, "Morris Ankrum the Face of 1950's Science Fiction/Horror Movies", may be read at:
Above left to right, Arthur Franz, Morris Ankrum, and Jimmy Hunt
Milburn Stone portrayed "Army Captain Roth", Stone's on-screen acting career began in 1935, he was a reporter in 1940's, "Black Friday", starring Boris Karloff and Bela Lugosi, "Navy Lieutenant Farragut" in director Cecil B. DeMille's, 1942, "Reap the Wild Wind", co-starred with John Carradine and Evelyn Ankers in the 1943 Horror movie, "Captive Wild Woman", and in 1943 was in both "Sherlock Holmes Faces Death", and "The Mad Ghoul". However, Stone is best known for portraying "Dr. Galen Adams", aka: "Doc", on televisions "Gunsmoke", from 1955 through 1975.
Robert Shayne portrayed "Dr. William Wilson". In 1953, Shayne starred as "The Neanderthal Man", and in 1954 was in a three-part episode of televisions "Space Patrol" and the movie "Tobor the Great". However, Robert Shayne is best remembered not for 1957's "KRONOS", or "The Giant Claw", but portraying "Police Inspector Henderson" on televisions "The Adventures of Superman", 1952 through 1958. My article, "Robert Shayne: Superman's Detective Henderson and "B" Minus Science Fiction and Horror", can be read at:
William Cameron Menzies was supposed to make two motion pictures in the "Third-Dimension" and this was to be his first, but just prior to the start of filming. Father and son producers, Edward L. Alperson and Edward L. Alperson, Jr., informed him that they had decided not to shoot this picture in 3-D. This is probably because the costs involved for an independent production in the process finally hit home. "Senior" had made movies for three-years only, 1936 through 1939. While, this was "Junior's" fourth movie since only 1951, and the other three were very low budget "B's".
The reverse had happened to director Gordon Douglas with the 1954 Science Fiction classic, "THEM!". Douglas had shot the feature in 3-D, but studio owner Jack L. Warner decided the process was too expensive and box office was down. So, he ordered the picture released in 2-D and the 3-D prints destroyed.
Speaking to the basic story created by John Tucker Battle, there may have been a dream by his wife, but I direct my reader to "David's" parents and an actual event that both Battle and screenplay writer Richard Blake would have been well aware of, for that matter everyone connected with the motion picture.
The motion picture was made during the "Second Red Scare", when American's feared nuclear war with the Soviet Union. Two months after the release of "Invaders from Mars", on June 19, 1953, at "Sing-Sing Prison", husband and wife Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were put to death. The charge was spying on behalf of the Soviet Union and providing top secret information on nuclear weapon designs to enemies of the United States. Their two sons believed their parents were innocent and described them as loving parents, others agreed, and claimed someone was manipulating the pair.
In the screenplay, "Mr. and Mrs. MacLean", are shown first as loving parents in a typical 1950's household. However, after the Martians intervene in "David's" parent's lives, their personalities change and they both become emotionless spies and saboteurs for the Martians on the nuclear powered space craft "Mr. MacLean" is working on.
William Cameron Menzies was using subtle direction to influence the thoughts and feelings of his audience. He controlled what they saw, because there are no location shots. The motion picture was entirely shot on a sound stage with the sets he had designed and built for the 3-D process and to drop unconscious clues as to the screenplays twist ending.
Things move fast, as "Dr. Kelton" reveals the nuclear-powered rocket to "David" and "Dr. Blake", adding that both "David's" father and "Kathy's" are working on the same top-secret project.
"Dr. Kelton" shows "David" a model of a flying saucer that he identifies as the one that landed in the sand pit. and "Kelton" tells him and "Dr. Blake" that the saucer must have come from Mars, because of how close the planet is to Earth.
Meanwhile, the two police officers, "David's" parents, and the military officer attack the complex with the space craft, but the officers and the military officer will be killed by the alerted military police.
mankind developed to its ultimate intelligence
The group encounters another "Mutax" and kills it, before it can use the ray gun on them. However, the group finds itself at a dead end, but "David" somehow knows how to use the ray gun and creates a hole in the tunnel for everyone to escape.
As "David" runs away from the sandpit, the saucer clears the sandpit, the firing mechanism on the bomb reaches fire!
The ending now had the added scene of "David", and "Dr. Blake", joining "Dr. Kelton" behind a tank to protect them from the exploding Martian flying saucer. She assures "David" that his parents are alright and will be joining him soon, the scene dissolves to "David's" bedroom with both doctor's saying goodnight to him, fade out to end title.
For the United Kingdom, the observatory scenes were expanded, but they didn't match the original scenes from a year earlier. Someone added pictures on the walls they weren't in the William Cameron Menzies' film. One moment there were no pictures and the next, pictures. The clothing Jimmy Hunt wore in the new shots were slightly different from the original and like the pictures on the wall, kept changing within the same scene. Not to forget that Hunt looked one year older.
The story was based upon Swiss author Maurice-Yves Sandoz's, 1945, novel "The Maze". Sandoz was one of the founders of the Swiss fantastic tales and science fiction.
Richard Carlson portrayed "Gerald MacTeam". Richard Carlson had just been in the classic 3-D motion picture, 1953's, "It Came from Outer Space". My article on his career, "Richard Carlson the Academic Turned Actor", will be found at:
Katherine Emery portraying "Aunt Edith Murray". Emery's second film was producer Val Lewton's classic, and a favorite of this writer's, 1945, "Isle of the Dead", starring Boris Karloff.
Katherine Emery was primarily a legitimate stage actress, which explains only having twelve motion picture roles.
Michael Pate portrayed "William". Australian actor Pate is probably best known for two roles, he was "Vittorio" in John Wayne's, 1953, 3-D Western, "Hondo", and the vampire gunslinger, "Drake Robey", in 1959's, "Curse of the Undead", co-starring a pre-"Rawhide", Eric Fleming. For "James Bond" trivia junkies, Michael Pate was the first actor to portray "Leiter", in the 1954, television version of Ian Fleming's "Casino Royale", on the American anthology series, "Climax". He is also part of my article, "Woody Strode and Michael Pate: Western Stalwarts", at:
Below, "Gerald" and "Kitty's" mutual friends.
The movie opens with "Aunt Edith" breaking the fourth wall of the theater and speaking to the audience. She tells them that the story started one-year ago. "Edith" and her niece "Kitty" were vacationing in Cannes, France, and meeting with "Kitty's" fiancé "Gerald MacTeam" and some of their close friends.
Fade to an engagement party at a fancy French restaurant.
When "Kitty" and "Aunt Edith" arrive, they are met with resentment from the servants and even from "Gerald".
In their room, "Bert Dilling" informs his wife that there has not been a "MacTeam" wife in over 200-years, apparently, the line is kept going by the use of nephews like "Gerald".
I have a lot of affection for this eerie horror/SF movie, though it took me a couple of viewings. The first time I saw the movie, I did get caught up in the eerie mood and the atmospheric sense of dread and tragedy that pervaded the castle, but the revelation concerning the nature of the true lord of the castle caused me to break out in laughter rather than to rear back in horror, and it ruined the movie for me. The second time I saw it, I was prepared, and was able to see beyond this flaw and appreciate how touching and sad the ending of the movie was. Part of the credit must go to Richard Carlson’s excellent performance, one of the best of his I’ve seen.
All the fine acting and productions values of "The Maze" goes out the window, so to speak, with the clear appearance of "Sir Rodger MacTeam" and the explanation not only for "Gerald's" actions, but his uncle, and those before him for the last 200-years. Reacting to "Aunt Edith" and "Kitty", "Sir Rodger" returns to his tower room and jumps out of an open window to his death.
"Gerald" explains, see the book he was reading, that all humans go through all stages of evolution and "Sir Rodger" stopped development at the amphibian stage. As long as he survived, "Gerald" and the others before him, were the Baron of Craven Castle in name only. Now, with "Sir Rodger's" death, he, "William", and the others are free to live a normal life.
AROUND THE WORLD IN 80 DAYS released on October 17, 1956
William Cameron Menzies last motion picture was as the Associate Producer on Michael Todd's version of French author Jules Verne's "Around the World in 80 Days".
The motion pictures four stars were David Niven, Mexican comedian Cantinflas, Shirley MacLaine, and Robert Newton.
All the other stars on the above poster appeared for anywhere from a couple of minutes to a very small role. At the back of the program, below, that I paid one-dollar in 1956 for, is a list of all the non-stars in the movie appearing on the above poster.
Michal Todd, because the story starts in Victorian England, had each of these non-star's pictures placed in a typical period frame next to a mini-biography. As a result of the name of that particular Victorian Picture Frame, "Cameo", film critics referred to each actor as having a "Cameo Performance", and the term was created.
On March 5, 1957, at 60-years of age, William Cameron Menzies passed away from cancer.