Friday, February 23, 2018

PAUL FIX: The Character Actor Who Taught John Wayne To Walk

PAUL FIX had a career consisting of a combination of 527 motion picture and television appearances. but most people wouldn't be able to put a face or role to his name. Let alone know that it was Fix who taught John Wayne that famous walk of his. However, if you were a fan of television's "The Rifleman". You knew the actor as "Marshal Micah Torrance", but that was 33 years after Paul Fix started acting.

Paul Fix was born on March 13, 1901 in Dobbs Ferry, New York, on the lower East Hudson River, and parents were both German immigrants. His father was a brew master named Wilhelm Fix and his mother was Louise C. Walz. They gave him the name of Peter Paul Fix, but some sources say he was born Paul Fix Morrison. Information to this strange last name can be found on page 200 of James Robert Parish's 1978 book "Hollywood Character Actors". According to Fix's niece, Carolyn E. Fix, those writers actually mixed up her Uncle's name with the birth name of Paul's good friend and acting student John Wayne.




The above photograph, as stated in the caption, is missing Paul Peter's oldest sister and unfortunately there is no date associated with it. His mother would die at the age of 54 when her son was 13 and Paul's father two years later at 62. The young boy first went to live with one of his married sisters in Yonkers, New York and then for some reason he was moved to his other sister in Zanesville, Ohio. During this period there was a change between his first and second names and Paul Peter Fix became Peter Paul Fix. Again I could not locate any reason for the switch. I also could not locate any information on the young man's education, but with the outbreak of World War One things did get a little interesting for him.

Peter Paul Fix was a member of the New York National Guard located in Peekskill, New York. After three months in the guard he went AWOL and enlisted in the Army. Peter Paul went through boot camp and was assigned to Fort Slocum, New York on Davis Island. Three months later he went AWOL once more, and the day before his 17th birthday enlisted in the United States Navy. Fix served at Newport, Rhode Island and Charleston, South Carolina. Along with on the troop ship U.S.S. Mount Vernon as a hospital corpsman transporting troops to Europe.



While stationed in Newport, Rhode Island. The young sailor was asked, if he would appear in a Navy Relief Show. He accepted one of the female roles of their version of Gilbert and Sullivan's operetta "H.M.S. Pinafore". This was apparently the first time Fix had ever acted and the show toured for six weeks between Providence, Rhode Island and Boston, Massachusetts. On September 5, 1919  Peter Paul Fix was Honorably Discharged from the United States Navy.

In 1922 Paul and his girlfriend Frances "Taddy" Harvey were married. The newlyweds moved to Hollywood and the now Paul Fix became an actor and writer. Shortly afterwards the movie and Stage actress Pauline Fredrick saw Fix perform. He was hired along with a close friend named Clark Gable to be part of Fredrick's Touring Stage Company. Which traveled up and down the California coast performing different plays.

In 1925 Paul Fix appeared in his first motion picture "The Perfect Clown". He had the non screen credited role of a "Bellhop". This was followed by his first Western "Hoodoo Ranch" aka: "The Ranch of Hoodoos" released January 22, 1926. All we know is that Paul Fix was part of a cast of six actors and one of them Jay Wilsey, an early Cowboy film star, portrayed "Buffalo Bill, Jr.".

Hoodoo Ranch Poster

Paul Fix followed his first Western with fifth billing as "Ezra Talbot" in 1928's "The First Kiss" starring Fay Wray and Gary Cooper.



Above Gary Cooper and Paul Fix in a publicity shot for "The First Kiss".

Next the young actor received fourth billing as "Joe" in 1929's "Lucky Star" starring Janet Gaynor and Charles Farrell. Four pictures later and Fix appeared in "B" Cowboy actor Buck Jones'  "The Avenger". As my reader will discover the "The Avenger" was the first of several films with the Cowboy Actor, Paul Fix, would appear in varying size roles. In this Hollywood fiction of "The Avenger" Jones portrayed Mexican bandit "Joaquin Murietta" and Paul was his brother "Juan". Two motion pictures later came the start of a life long friendship.

Fix was playing the non screen credited role of "Tony Halcomb" in a picture starring Loretta Young. Young had discovered that Paul had good acting instincts after the start of filming. This occurred after he suggested to the actress, with her permission, some changes to the way she was portraying her role. The film was 1931's "Three Girls Lost". Loretta had felt that her male lead seemed stiff in his role of "Gordon Wales", but the actress knew he had talent. At which point Loretta Young suggested to Paul Fix that he become an Acting Coach and work with the young actor named John Wayne.

"Three Girls Lost" John Wayne, Loretta Young

Above Loretta Young and John Wayne in "Three Girls Lost".

In his very enjoyable memoir "Company of Heroes: My Life as an Actor in the John Ford Stock Company". Harry Carey, Jr. relates one extremely important event in John Wayne's life as a result of Loretta Young convincing Paul Fix to become his acting coach. According to Harry Carey, Jr. eventually Fix become part of a drinking crowd with Wayne, director John Ford and Harry Carey, Sr. Ford and Carey were discussing the upcoming 1939 production of "Stagecoach" and to them a major problem posed by John Wayne's acting. Even though he had been in over 30 "B" Westerns by this time. The actor looked like a "Hollywood Cowboy", but not a real cowboy. For "Stagecoach" John Ford needed the young actor to look, but more importantly "Feel" like both a cowboy and an escaped outlaw with a past. They gave the problem to Fix to "Fix".

Paul's "Fix" turned out to be simple. He taught John Wayne how to walk and how to stand. As with Loretta Young, eight years earlier, Paul believed if you had the mannerisms of the role. Then no matter what you were dressed in, or what lines you recited. The audience would believe you were that character. That walk became second nature to John Wayne and recognized around the world as his trade mark.

In 1944 Harry Carey, Jr. would marry Paul and Frances Fix's daughter Marilyn. They would remain married through his death in 2012.

Although Paul Fix was not in the cast of "Stagecoach". The film is considered one of the first real classic Westerns and his contribution helped to make the "Ringo Kid" one of John Wayne's most unforgettable roles. My article on that motion picture and the two remakes, to date, can be read at:

http://www.bewaretheblog.com/2016/09/a-comparison-of-john-fords-1939.html


 Returning to "Three Girls Lost" the picture would be immediately followed by another Buck Jones Western. Four other forgotten pictures followed and then came a Hal Roach "Little Rascals" comedy "Free Eats" released February 13, 1932. I looked all over for a still of Paul Fix in this short subject, because his role is described as "Elvira, 'wife' of the head of a gang of thieves". March 5, 1932 saw the actor in his third Buck Jones "B" Western "South of the Rio Grande" once again portraying a Mexican bandit named "Juan Olivarez".

On April 9, 1932 Howard Hughes released the original "Scarface" directed by Howard Hawks. Look closely in some of the scenes with Boris Karloff as "Tom Gaffney". In them you might notice Paul Fix as a hood working for Karloff. On August 17, 1932 Paul was "Eddie Warner, Cell 8" in the original version of "The Last Mile" starring Preston Foster. December 30, 1932 saw actress Irene Dunne starring in "Back Street". In the film Paul Fix portrayed "Hugo Hack", but all his scenes were deleted prior to the film's release.

On May 27, 1933 for the first time Paul Fix was in a motion picture with John Wayne. The title was "Somewhere in Sonora" and there are two interesting facts about this Warner Brothers release.




The first is that the picture was one of six remakes of a series of 1927 Silent Westerns starring Ken Maynard. In the original movie Maynard was "Bob Bishop". In this picture John Wayne is "John Bishop". In the above photo Paul is "Bart Leadly" and that same named role in the original was portrayed by Carl Stockdale. To save money Warner Brothers dressed Wayne in exact outfits that Maynard wore and matched footage of Ken Maynard to John Wayne in the remakes.

The second point I want to make is about the horse in the above still. He was matched to Maynard's named "Tarzan". While John Wayne's was named "DUKE" and was billed as "The Miracle Horse". One of the many answers given by Wayne about his nickname of "Duke" came from this series. He was said to reply:
Hell, they named the Horse Duke!




Speaking of Ken Maynard. After five more films including the kidnap drama "The Mad Game" starring Spencer Tracy and Claire Trevor. On November 20, 1933 Paul Fix was forth billed playing Maynard's brother "Mort Clark" in the Western "Fargo Express". Among Fix's next nine movie appearances were two more Buck Jones Westerns, a Western with Colonel Tim McCoy and playing a French Citizen in a crowd scene in the 1934 classic "Count of Monte Cristo".

On April 22, 1935 Paul Fix once again appeared in a John Wayne "B" Western "The Desert Trail" as "Jim Whitmore". He's one of two men that murder a man and then rob the Rattlesnake Gulch rodeo. Next the two blame Wayne and his gambler friend. Fix is on the far right below.

  

Paul Fix continued to play either a Gangster, or a Cowboy Villain in roles of different sizes. Another 1935 Western was "His Fighting Blood" starring Ken Maynard's older brother Kermit. Also in this busy year saw the actor featured in movies starring Buck Jones and Colonel Tim McCoy. Along with two Westerns starring William Boyd as "Hopalong Cassidy".

On February 28, 1936 Paul Fix was part of the ensemble cast in John Ford's classic true story of "Dr/ Samuel Mudd". "Mudd" made the mistake of treating the injured John Wilkes Booth after he had assassinated Abraham Lincoln and became  "The Prisoner of Shark Island". Below a publicity still of Paul  as "David Herold" and star Warner Baxter as "Samuel Mudd".




It was back to Cowboy villains, which Paul Fix was great aT, and Gangsters. Fix appeared in the Peter Lorre vehicle, April 7, 1938, "Mr. Moto's Gamble" in the role of "A Gangster".and "The Saint in New York" starring Louis Hayward as "Simon Templar", June 3, 1938, in the role of "Phil Farrell, a doorman at the Silver Club".

Paul Fix had the colorful name of "Nails Miller" in the "King of Alcatraz", released September 30, 1938. What makes this 68 minute motion picture interesting is certainly not the plot, but who else was with Paul in the cast. That cast included Harry Carey, Lloyd Nolan, J, Carrol Naish, Robert Preston, Anthony Quinn, Richard Denning, Dennis Morgan, Monte Blue, John Hart and Tom Tyler.

John Hart would replace Clayton Moore on "The Long Ranger" for a short time and "B" Cowboy actor Tom Tyler would originate, on screen, both "Captain Marvel" and Universal Studio's "Kharis the Mummy". My article on Tyler may be found at:

http://www.bewaretheblog.com/2017/01/tom-tyler-b-cowboy-star-who-became.html

Through 1939 Paul Fix appeared in another 17 motion pictures and then in a Boris Karloff and Bela Lugosi Horror film "Black Friday" released on a Thursday in a leap year February 29, 1940. Paul was "William Kane", but of course eighth billing doesn't make the poster and to be truthful Bela had a part almost as small as Fix's. The difference being his name brought in his fans.



The screenplay was by Curt Siodmak, Universal Studio's 1940 "The Wolfman", and he would rework "Black Friday" into his classic Science Fiction novel "Donovan's Brain". My article on Curt and his brother Robert, who directed Curt's screenplay for Universal Studio's "Son of Dracula",  may be read at:

http://www.bewaretheblog.com/2017/11/curt-and-robert-siodmak-horror-and-film.html

On April 12, 1940 a sometimes overlooked Science Fiction/Horror film "Dr. Cyclops" opened in Technicolor from Paramount Pictures. Paul Fix's "Dr. Mendoza" is killed off at the movies opening by Albert Dekker's "Dr. Thorkel". Who once his needed glasses are broken becomes the title character. "Torkel" has developed a machine that shrinks peoples and other living creatures. The effects were ground breaking and Fix, like the movie, is usually overlooked.





What was also unusual for this film was the publicity. "Dr Cyclops" had a tag line of:
The Mystery Picture of the Year!


Besides playing Cowboys and Gangsters over the next year. Paul Fix got to do a little comedy, still playing a Gangster, in both 1940's "The Ghost Breakers" starring Bob Hope and Paulette Goddard and the similar 1941 "Hold that Ghost",  but this time starring Bud Abbott and Lou Costello. Below Paul as "Frenchy Duval" in "The Ghost Breakers".



The following still is of very bad quality, but Paul Fix shows clearly as "Joe 'the Book' Conway" wearing the glasses. In a typical propaganda movie made after the United States entered World War 2. In this case the film  takes place in 1939. When a team of convicts, under Ward Bond's "Steve Maschek", are sent into Germany to "Bring Hitler to Justice". The title of the film was "Hitler--Dead or Alive", released November 12, 1942, and was based on an actual event.

From time to time I will mention other film appearances, but starting at this point I will be concentrating on the many performances Paul Fix had with his good friend John Wayne and will start with my mother's hometown of "Pittsburgh", released December 11, 1942.

Paul Fix portrayed "Burnside, the Mine Owner" in this film The motion picture starred Marlene Dietrich, Randolph Scott and third billed John Wayne. It told the story of a man, Wayne, who valued wealth over his friends until his fortunes turn.


Fix followed "Pittsburgh" with small roles in "Sherlock Holmes and the Secret Weapon", "Bombardier" and a cult Horror film"Captive Wild Women". In which John Carradine turns a Gorilla into a women.

Released on December 6, 1943 was "In Old Oklahoma" aka. at its 1947 reissue. as "War of the Wildcats" starring John Wayne, Martha Scott and Albert Dekker. Itwas about a school teacher becoming the love interest between two men fighting for the oil rights on an Indian Reservation. Paul Fix had the interesting character name of "The Cherokee Kid". He's shown pointing his pistol at Wayne in this publicity still.



"The Fighting Seabees" , January 27, 1944, immediately followed "In Old California" for both Paul Fix and John Wayne. This highly fictionalized story of the creation of the Navy Seabees featured a young Susan Hayward and Dennis O'Keefe. Paul's character was named "Ding Jacobs".

 



On Sepetember 29, 1944 the Western "Tall in the Saddle" followed "The Fighting Seabees". Not only did Paul Fix appear in this John Wayne film, but he wrote the screenplay. The story is about a cowhand who arrives in a town to find his new employee murdered. Wayne's USC Football friend Ward Bond portrayed the villain of the story and actress Ella Raines the love interest. Fix's own character was "Bob Clews". He is on the left of the following still with Wayne, George "Gabby" Hayes and Raymond Hatton.



A one movie break from being in John Wayne features happened with "Grissly's Millions" in January 1945, but after that film.  Paul Fix was back with "The Duke" in "Flame of Barbary Coast". Actress Ann Dvorak was the "Flame" of the film's title as "Ann 'Flaxen' Tarry". Fix had another colorful character name as "Calico Jim". Who is seen on the far left of the following still.



It seemed that Paul Fix appearing in John Wayne pictures was becoming a normal thing. In fact his next five features were Wayne titles. Beginning with portraying "Bindle Jackson" in the May 31, 1945 release of the World War 2 flag waver "Back to Bataan".


The Western "Dakota" was released by Republic Pictures on December 25, 1945 and Wayne's co-star was Vera Ralston. Ralston, according to the critics without talent, just happened to be the wife of the owner of Republic Pictures Herbert J, Yates and that might have led to her being cast. I write with tongue firmly in cheek. Paul Fix had another villainous role as "Carp". Paul's next film didn't give the actor any on screen credit as "Mouse Marr", but was also a Wayne feature/ "Angel and the Badman" released on February 15, 1947. The plot had outlaw "Quirt Evans", John Wayne, mend his ways under the charms of the Quaker girl "Penelope Worth" portrayed by co-star Gail Russell.

In 1945 Paul divorced Francis. In 1949 he would marry Beverley Pratt and the two would remain married through he death in 1979. They had no children.

"Tycoon", December 27, 1947, tells the story of "Johnny Munroe", Wayne, and his team sent to South America to build a tunnel through a mountain for a railroad owner played by Sir Cedric Hardwicke. "Munroe" will of course fall in love with the daughter, "Maura", played by co-star Laraine Day.



Above Paul Fix is seen on the far right as "Joe". The picture also featured the future "Dame" Judith Anderson, Anthony Quinn and James Gleason. Originally Maureen O'Hara was to have co-starred in the motion picture, but RKO switched her to "Sinbad the Sailor" starring Douglas Fairbanks, Jr. Had O'Hara stayed with "Tycoon". This would have been her first pairing with Wayne. Instead that awaited until 1950 and "Rio Grande".

In between John Wayne Westerns was a Republic Picture's "B" Western starring John Carroll and Adele Mara called "Angel in Exile". Paul was seen as "Carl Spitz". The story has an ex-convict dreaming of making his fortune in gold in the Arizona Territory, but being mistaken by a Mexican village as a sacred religious figure come to life.

There are Westerns and then there are WESTERNS.
A Western released on September 30, 1948 saw Paul Fix portray the Wrangler "Teeler Yacey". Harry Carey was "Mr Melville the Representative of the Greenwood Trading Company", his son Harry Carey, Jr. was Wrangler "Dan Latimer", Noah Berry, Jr. Wrangler "Buster McGee".

Without on screen credit were actress Shelley Winters as a "Dance Hall Girl" and two more Wrangler's portrayed by Tom Tyler, "Luke Plummer in John Ford's Stagecoach", and Glenn Strange, best remembered as the last Universal "Frankenstein Monster".

Moving up in this splendid cast was John Ireland as "Cherry Valance". Two years before this film Ireland had portrayed "Ringo" in John Ford's "My Darling Clementine". The year following this role. Ireland would play "Robert Ford" in Sam Fuller's "I Shot Jesse James".

The second leading actress was Colleen Gray as "Fen", but. unfortunately she's best remembered in  the title role of the 1960 movie "The Leech Woman".

The leading actress in the picture was Joanne Dru as "Tess Millay". The following year Dru was in John Ford's "She Wore A Yellow Ribbon"..

While the third male lead in this motion picture was Walter Brennan playing "Nadine Groot".

I would expect my reader to already know the picture I refer too. This was producer/director Howard Hawks' "Red River". The film that convinced John Ford to cast John Wayne in the previously mentioned "She Wore A Yellow Ribbon". After he saw him as "Thomas Dunson". Wayne's co-star in only his second motion picture was Montgomery Clift as "Matthew 'Matt' Garth".

Below second from the left is Walter Brennan, Montgomery Clift is next to him and Paul Fix next to Clift.




Three more forgotten motion pictures and Pail Fix was back with John Wayne and Gail Russell in the "Wake of the Red Witch", released March 1, 1949. Wayne is a sea captain out for revenge against a wealthy ship company owner. His "Captain Rails" is a cruel master of the "Red Witch" and for personal reasons he deliberately scuttles her with a cargo of gold bullion in the hold. Why and the recovery of the gold make up the features plot. Paul Fix portrays a seaman called "Antonio 'Ripper' Arrezo".

  

Below Gig Young as "Samuel 'Sam' Rosen", Fix and Wayne.




Another forgotten "B" Western followed and then John Ford's "She Wore A Yellow Ribbon" in which you have to blink fast to see Paul Fix as a "Gunrunner".



Set in 1818 Alabama was "The Fighting Kentuckian" released on September 15, 1949. The plot is  about French Immigrant Settlers being harassed by land grabber "Blake Randolph" played by John Howard. Paul Fix portrayed "Beau Merrit" who works for "Randolph". In the lobby card below you have Fix, Wayne and Grant Withers as "George Hayden".




Following Paul's next Western movie the "Fighting Man of the Plains" starring Randolph Scott on November 16, 1949. He made his first appearance in the new medium of television. Fix's role was an old west con man named "Silk" who was "Salting" a mine to sucker investors into buying shares. The program aired September 24, 1950 with the title  "The Million Dollar Wall Paper" and "Silk" was stopped by "The Lone Ranger" and his faithful Indian companion "Tonto".

September 15, 1950 Republic Picture's released "Surrender". It's basically a typical "B" Western set in Texas involving a falsely accused man for murder. Paul Fix's "Deputy Williams" is easily seen on the extreme left next to Walter Brennan. Brennan's "Sheriff Bill Howard" is lecturing saloon owner "Gregg Delaney" portrayed by the movies male lead John Carroll.  What makes this film interesting are three other names in the cast.

The first was fourth billed Francis Lederer playing "Henry Vaan"/ Lederer was born in 1899 in Prague in the country then called Bohemia and today the Czech-Republic. He left Europe and became both a British and American stage  and motion picture actor. In 1958 had the title role in "The Return of Dracula". His very interesting story can be read on my blog at:

http://www.bewaretheblog.com/2016/02/francis-lederer-forgotten-dracula-stage.html

Portraying "Molly Hale" was Jane Darrow. Darrow had won the Best Supporting Actress Academy Award for playing "Ma Joad" in John Ford's 1940 film "The Grapes of Wrath" and appeared in William A. Wellman's 1943 production of "The Ox-Bow Incident".

The third actor I want to mention was in the role of "Canning" and was Jeff York. This was five years before he first appeared as "Mike Fink" in Walt Disney's "Davy Crockett and the Keel Boar Race". York had been in motion pictures since 1937.

There were eleven more performances for Paul Fix until the motion picture "A Fair Wind to Java". Those appearances included one episode of the popular gangster television series "Racket Squad" playing his stereo typed "Hood". Which he also had fun with in a comic episode of "The Abbott and Costello" television show. Along with six "B" Western titles, a World War One film starring James Gagney and "Big Jim McLain" released August 30, 1952. That pro-House Committee on Un-American Activities film starred John Wayne and James Arness as that committee's agents. Paul Fix's role was that of a voice, the actor never seen on screen, named "Chauncey".

Released March 30, 1953 "A Fair Wind to Java" starred Fred MacMurray and Vera Ralston. This was the first motion picture using the volcanic disaster of the eruption of Krakatoa, in 1883,  as a back drop. Paul Fix played one of  MacMurray's crew named "Wilson".


The only other Hollywood movie on the eruption was 1968.s "Krakatoa, East of Java". The island was actually West of Java. My article on the actual eruption and both motion pictures can be read at:

http://www.bewaretheblog.com/2017/12/krakatoa-west-not-east-of-java-1883.html

On August 15, 1953 Paul Fix played a guard with a Gatling Gun in the first of two 3-D movies he would be seen in. This was Howard Hughes production "Devil's Canyon" starring Virginia Mayo and Dale Robertson.





After that very small role in a film with the typical Howard Hughes tag line of "500 Desperate Men Caged Up With One Women" the actor was back with John Wayne for two motion pictures.

Author Ernest K. Gann wrote two popular novels that he turned both into extremely popular screenplays directed by William "Wild Bill" Wellman. Both film versions also starred John Wayne and featured Paul Fix. The first was released on September 3, 1953 and was based upon a rescue mission Army pilot Gann actually participated in. The film was "Island in the Sky".

John Wayne's Army C-47 crashes in what was then the waste land of Canada and a rescue mission is started. Paul Fix was "Wally Miller" one of the pilots in rotation looking for the down aircraft.





In the above still Fix is leaning on the far left. In this still are some recognizable faces in the ensemble case. Standing by Fix is James Arness, on the floor is Andy Devine, behind him is Lloyd Nolan, Against the map is Paul Abel and next to him is Harry Carey. Jr. Also in the cast were Sean McClory. Regis Toomey, Bob Steele, Darryl Hickman, Mike "Touch" Connors and Carl 'Alfalfa" Switzer.

That second 3-D motion picture followed and was released on November 27, 1953. This feature also starred John Wayne in the title role as Louis L'Amour's "Hondo". Paul Fix portrayed "Army Major Sherry".







Paul Fix returned to his trademark Gangster roles as two different characters in two different episodes of television's "The Adventures of Superman" starring George Reeves. In the episode "Semi-Private Eye" January 16, 1954 the actor was billed as "Peter" Fix.

On May 7, 1954 the very interesting character study Western by director Nicholas Ray, "Rebel Without A Cause" and "55 Days At Peking", premiered. "Johnny Guitar" had an interesting cast including Joan Crawford, Mercedes McCambridge, Sterling Hayden, Scott Brady, Ward Bond, Ernest Borgnine, John Carradine and Paul Fix as Crawford's dealer :Eddie".



Paul Fix next appeared in the second motion picture based upon an Ernest K. Gann novel. "The High and the Mighty" was actually a surprise major Oscar nominated feature. It is also the first airplane disaster motion picture with a an "All Star Cast", if only considered "B" stars. John Wayne portrayed "First Officer Dan Roman", Robert Stack was pilot "Captain John Sullivan", Paul Fix was "Frank Briscoe", Dueling Supporting Actress Oscar nominees were Jan Sterling as "Sally McGee" and Claire Trevor, "Dallas in John Ford's 'Stagecoach", was "May Hoist". Jan Sterling had already received the Golden Globe for her role. William Wellman was nominated for Best Director. The picture was nominated for six Oscar and won only Best Original Score for Dimitri Tiomkin.

The story used flashbacks to tell everyone on board the airplane's backstory. In the case of Fix's "Frank Briscoe" he is a dying man reviewing his life and giving strength to Jan Sterling's "Sally McGee".



Two more television shows and on June 4, 1955 Paul Fix was once more in a movie with his friend John Wayne. The picture was "The Sea Chase" and a British/American co-production. This was also one of four films the "Duke" used in an attempt to change his Cowboy image.

Wayne is the Captain of a German Merchant Ship just after Germany had invaded Poland and World War 2 is about to start. The story has the merchant being chased by British and Australian ships to capture it's crew. After the one Nazi on board, :"Chief Officer Kirchner", played by Lyle Bettger, murders civilians on Auckland Island against the Captain's orders.

Adding to that plot has Wayne's "Captain Karl Erich" being forced to take a German Spy as a passenger. The passenger turned love interest is "Elsa Keller" portrayed by Lana Turner and things do get hot. Paul Fix played a member of "Erich's" crew "Max Heinz". Also in the crew were James Arness, Claude Akins, Alan Hale and Tab Hunter/



Above Fix, Wayne and Lana Turner.

For those of my readers interested in Wayne. The reasons behind taking this role and three others such as playing "Genghis Khan" can be found on my blog at:

http://www.bewaretheblog.com/2015/04/john-wayne-four-gutsy-role-choices.html

For my ninth birthday, in October 1955,  I went to see Paul Fix playing Chinese patriarch, "Mr. Tao",  in director William Wellman's "Blood Alley". Which I confess remains my favorite all time John Wayne film with co-star was Lauren Bacall. She reminded in the role even after her husband, Humphrey Bogart, decided not to play what became Wayne's role. This film was unflinchingly anti-Chinese Communist, but unlike "Big Jim McLain" very exciting.

Below's the "Duke" has just been smuggled out of a Chinese jail and meets "Mr. Tao" and "Cathy Granger", Bacall.



Like normal Hollywood procedures the leading Oriental roles where played by Caucasian actors."Mr. Tao" reveals that Wayne's "Captain Tom Wilder" was rescued to Captain an old Ferryboat. For the purpose of to taking "Tao's" entire village, their dead ancestors and livestock to safety in Hong Kong down the Chinese patrolled river known as  "Blood Alley". As I said Wellman spins an exciting adventure. Fix had third billing.

Paul was now dividing his time between television and motion pictures on a regular basis. As the still young medium was keeping families at home to watch such shows as "The Ford Television Theater" presented by the Ford Motor Company. Fix was in two television productions after making "Blood Alley" with one on the Ford program. He was also seen in the Alan Ladd motion picture "Santiago".



Then there was the 1956 motion picture with a no one admitted under 16 years of age, because its subject matter was about a nine year old murderess "The Bad Seed". Even Patty McCormick who had portrayed the role of "Rhoda" on Broadway for over 300 performances and in the motion picture version. Wasn't permitted to see the movie and she eventually saw it on television when she was now 21 years of age.



On October 26, 1956 Paul Fix was "Lieutenant General Bryan Shellby" in Melvyn Leroy's "Toward the Unknown" starring William Holden as Air Force Test Pilot "Major Lincoln Bond".



On November 24, 1956 Paul Fix portrayed "Dr. Horace Lynnton" the father of Elizabeth Taylor's "Leslie Lynnton". The picture was director George Stevens production of Edna Ferber's ":Giant".  Also starring Rock Hudson and James Dean.

Below Paul Fix at the far end of the table and then unknown Australian actor Rod Taylor as "Sir David Karfey" and billed as Rodney Taylor.



Seven roles later, four on television and three in forgotten motion pictures, found Paul Fix in another John Wayne vehicle from  producer Howard Hughes. "Jet Pilot" was released on September 25, 1957, but had been made in 1950, sat on the "Shelves" as they say and appeared extremely "Dated". Example the scene were Soviet Defector, or Spy "Lt Anna Marladovna", portrayed by Janet Leigh, trays on Swimsuits in Palm Springs. The look of those suits confirmed the year the picture had been made.

This film was planned to be another Howard Hughes' "Hell's Angels", but set during the Cold War. "Hell's Angels" had been set during World War One and made a star out of Jean Harlow. However, there were too many comic elements to the film planned and not planned. Again supposedly to make fun of the Soviet Union that just didn't work.

Paul Fix portrayed "Major Rexford".






On February 28, 1958 Paul Fix wrote the original story, the screenplay and starred as "The Notorious Mr. Monks".


For those wondering what "Naturama" was? Apparently it was a low budget Widescreen process used by Republic Studios to compete with CinemaScope. The film's plot is described as a drunken driver, Paul Fix, his wife, Vera Ralston, and a hitchhiker, Don Kelly, equal murder.

Not on the same bill, but released also on February 28, 1958. Found Paul Fix in a William Wellman production, without John Wayne, that was based upon the director's life as an American pilot for the French during World War One. "Lafayette Escadrille" told the story of several Americans, some by actual names that Wellman knew, who join the famed flying squadron. Wellman was in another unit during the war. The picture starred Tab Hunter and featured little known actors Clint Eastwood, David Janssen, Will Hutchins, Bret Halsey, Tom Laughlin, Jody McCrea and William Wellman, Jr. as his father. Paul Fix portrayed an American General.

My article on William Wellman can be read at:

http://www.bewaretheblog.com/2017/07/william-wild-bill-wellman-3-with-john.html

While on September 30, 1958 Paul Fix made his first appearance on the television series "The Rifleman", but not  as "Marshall Micah Torrance". Instead he had a non screen credited role as a doctor in the very first episode of the series, created by Sam Pechinpah, entitled "The Sharpshooter". 
Fix returned one month later, October 21, 1958, for Episode Four of that first season in "The Marshall".  Fix was the down drunk "Micah Torrance" who becomes the Sheriff at the episodes conclusion. Paul Fix would remain in the role for an additional 149 episodes through April 8, 1963 in "Old Tony".

Below Paul Fix as the alcoholic "Micah Torrance" and the new Town Marshall.

 The Rifleman - 01x04 The Marshal



During the period of being on the "Rifleman" Paul Fix was also guest starring on many other television Westerns. Such as "Broken Arrow", "Lawman", "Rawhide", "River Boat", "The Zane Grey Theater" and "Laramie".

On December 26, 1962 Paul Fix portrayed "Judge John Taylor". "Taylor"conducts the trial of ":Tom Robinson", Brock Peters, being defended by Gregory Peck's "Atticus Finch" in "To Kill A Mockingbird".



October 8,1964 saw Paul Fix in an interesting motion picture from director Martin Ritt. Most people know that 1960's "The Magnificent Seven" was director John Sturges' Americanization of Akira Kurosawa's "The Seven Samurai". Director Martin Ritt did an Americanization of another classic Kurosawa feature "Rashomon". The picture was called "The Outrage" and starred Paul Newman, Lawrence Harvey, Claire Bloom and Edgar G. Robinson.



On the above poster is Paul Newman as a Mexican bandit. In the film under heave make-up Paul Fix was the "Indian".



Akira Kurosawa did the reverse in motion pictures with William Shakespeare. I wrote an article on Kurosawa's versions of both "Macbeth" as "Throne of Blood" and "King Lear" as "RAN!". Along with American adaptations of his films. You can read this at:

http://www.bewaretheblog.com/2016/01/william-shakespeare-by-akira-kurosawa.html

Between 1959 and 1965 Paul Fix was seen in guest roles on "Wagon Train","The Fugitive", "Bob Hope Presents the Chrysler Theater" and even "Lassie". He also appeared in the 1965 Steven McQueen and Lee Remick feature "Baby the Rain Must Fall".
Specifically on June 3, 1965 Paul was seen as "Dr. Tom Witherspoon" in the James Stewart Civil War picture "Shenandoah".


On August 16, 1965, Paul Fix was "Sheriff Billy Wilson" facing off with John Wayne and Dean Martin.  Earl Holliman and Michael Anderson, Jr portrayed their brothers as "The Sons of Katie Elder" directed by Henry Hathaway.


Author Harold Robbins had written a 1961 novel called "The Carpetbaggers". Which became a Best Seller not so disguised look at the life of Howard Hughes now called "Jonas Cord". You have his affair with Jean Harlow in the novel and a whole section about a good friend of "Cord's" named "Nevada Smith". The novel was made into a highly successful motion picture in 1964 starring George Peppard as "Cord" and Alan Ladd as an older "Nevada Smith".

Which brings me to a great Western, directed by Henry Hathaway, made out of the section of Robbin's novel on the early life of "Nevada Smith". The movie was released under that title on June 10, 1966 starring Steve McQueen as the young "Smith". The picture follows the character's life as he tracks down the murderers of his Native American mother. Brian Keith played a gun salesman who teaches McQueen how to shoot. The name of Keith's character was "Jonas Cord Senior". As with all the main characters in Robbins "Novel the" "Nevada Smith" was based upon a real person. In this case William Boyd. Boyd who became a "B" Cowboy star as "Hopalong Cassidy". Paul Fix portrayed the character of "Sheriff Bonnell" in the ensemble cast.



Before there was "Dr. Leonard "Bones" McCoy" there was "Dr. Piper". The Third episode of the First Season of "Star Trek" was called "Where No Man Has Gone Before" and originally aired on September 22, 1966. Actually there were two doctors on "The Enterprise". The second was "Dr. Elizabeth Dehner" portrayed by Sally Kellerman four years before she created the character of "Major Margaret 'Hot Lips' O'Houlihan" in Robert Altman's motion picture "MASH".






"Star Trek" was immediately followed up in 1966 by guest appearances on "Voyage to the Bottom of the Sea" and "The Time Tunnel". Next it was two more Western feature films. The first was "Welcome to Hard Times" starring Henry Fonda and the second was with John Wayne of course.

Howard Hawks had always wanted to remake "Rio Bravo". On June 12, 1967 and not truly a remake, but a remix of elements of that 1959 classic "El Dorado" was released. Co-starring with John Wayne was  Robert Mitchum and the picture featured a young actor named James Caan.






Above Arthur Hunnicutt (Remix of Walter Brennan's role), Carlene Holt (Remix of Angie Dickinson's Role), John Wayne, Paul Fix as "Dr, Miller" and Robert Mitchum (A Composite of John Wayne and Dean Martin's Roles).

Howard Hawks would actually make a second remix of "Rio Bravo" called "Rio Lobo" in 1970. For those interested in all three films and how they're alike and differ. My article on Howard Hawks and these films can be read at:

http://www.bewaretheblog.com/2017/10/howard-hawks-rio-bravo-remade-as-el.html

On the television series "Gunsmoke" Paul Fix appeared for his fifth and sixth times in a two part story entitled "Vengence" on October 2 and October 9, 1967.  Fix was seen twice on the "Wild, Wild West" and on  "The High Chaparral" viewers found the actor portraying the Apache Chief Cochise.



Then there were "The Big Valley""The Guns of Will Sonnett" and "Daniel Boone", if it was a Western television series. My reader could be sure Paul Fix would turn up in some episode. Not forgetting he was twice on "Land of the Giants" and even once on the original "The Andy Griffith Show". During this time Paul also appeared in four different episodes of "Death Valley Days".
You want to talk about a busy character actor and I haven't mentioned every role and show Paul appeared in during the 1950's and 1960's.

In 1969 Paul Fix was reunited with Robert Mitchum and John Wayne, but in  two separate motion pictures. Robert Mitchum on September 17, 1969 was "Deputy Ben Kane" in Burt Kennedy's Western "Young Billy Young". The underrated movie was bout a young outlaw, Robert Walker,Jr. who becomes the Deputy Sheriff under Mitchum. David Carradine portrayed "Billy's" outlaw buddy "Jesse Bone". Who stays bad until the story's end. Paul Fix plated "Charlie".



On October 6, 1969 Paul Fix was back portraying an Indian on Lucille Ball's television show "Here's Lucy". Episode Three of Season Two was entitled "Lucy and the Indian Chief".


Paul Fix was "General Joe Masters" in the John Wayne and Rock Hudson feature "The Undefeated". Which was released on November 27, 1968.

From 1970 into 1973 Paul Fix appeared in a variety of television shows such as "Family Affair", "The Young Lawyers" and "Ironside". November 18, 1970 saw Paul once more as a Native American named "Chief Crazy Blanket" in the Frank Sinatra comedy Western "Dirty Dingus Magee". 1970 also saw Fix's last guest appearance on "The Virginian" which he had first appeared in 1964. Paul was another Native American in "Something Big". A Western starring Dean Martin and Brian Keith from director Andrew V. McLaglen. His role was that of "Chief Yellow Sun".

With all the Native American roles German American Fix was portraying. I want to direct my readers to an article I wrote about the history of  such roles as portrayed by Hollywood. The article starts with silent films when some roles were actually done by Native Americans and goes through the 2013 motion picture "The Lone Ranger". You may read it at:

http://www.bewaretheblog.com/2015/08/native-americans-hollywood-style.html

Paul Fix followed "Something Big" by returning to television on programs such as "Mannix", "Alias Smith and Jones" and "The Doris Day Show". 

Director Sam Peckinpah wanted to do the story of William H. Bonney his way. A combination of reality and legend. The result was "Pat Garrett and Billy the Kid". Starring James Coburn as Garrett and a choice that surprised many critics singer Kris Kristofferson as Billy. Also in this cast of great character actors was another non actor Bob Dylan as one of the "Kid's Gang".

The picture previewed at 122 minutes on May 23, 1977, but would be cut down to two versions of either 106 minutes, or 115 minutes. Within that character actor cast were Slim Pickens, Jack Elam, Harry Dean Stanton, Elisha Cook, Jr., Dub Taylor, Bruce Dern and somebody named Sam Peckinpah as "Will". Paul Fix portrayed one of the actual people involved with the "Kid", Pete Maxwell,

Paul Fix returned to a small role with his friend John Wayne in "Cahill, U.S. Marshall" released two months after "Pat Garrett and Billy the Kid" on July 11, 1973. His role reflected upon the 76 year old actor, because the screenplay just called his character the "Old Man".

21 more roles followed this film and Paul Fix ended his career in an episode of the Jack Klugman television series "Quincy M.E." entitled "For Want of a Horse" on December 9, 1981. Before that final program there were three roles I want to mention. The first saw Paul once again as a Native American named "Running Wolf" in the excellent 1977 film "Grayeagle". 



He had played "Commander Kronus" in Episode 20 in Season One of the original "Battlestar Galactica" entitled "Take the Celestra".



The last motion picture to open with Paul Fix was directed by its star Peter Fonda and co-starred Brooke Shields as the title character of  "Wanda Nevada". This mostly unknown little comedy gem is set not in Nevada as one might expect from the heroine's name, but Arizona. There's a cameo appearance by Peter's father, who was said to be out of work and actually needed money at the time, as an old Arizona Prospector. The film was released in June of 1979. Paul Fix had the colorful name of "Texas Curly".

Wanda nevadamp.jpg

Four years after appearing in "Wanda Nevada" on October 14, 1983 Paul Fix passed away in Los Angeles. What can one say of a "Character Actor", but that without these "Faces" in motion pictures and on television. Many a movie, or television program would seem empty. To borrow from Bob Hope:
THANKS FOR THE MEMORIES PAUL 



Friday, February 9, 2018

GOLEM: "The Wrath of God" in Motion Pictures

I'll mention here what I heard from my father's holy mouth regarding the Golem created by his ancestor, the Gaon R. Eliyahu Ba'al Shem of blessed memory. When the Gaon saw that the Golem was growing larger and larger, he feared that the Golem would destroy the universe. He then removed the Holy Name that was embedded on his forehead, thus causing him to disintegrate and return to dust. Nonetheless, while he was engaged in extracting the Holy Name from him, the Golem injured him, scarring him on the face. -----ACTUAL TRANSLATION FROM A 1748 WRITING BY RABBI JACOB EMDEN

For those unfamiliar with a "Golem", or confused by similar sounding characters in books and motion pictures. Specially J.R.R. Tolkien's character of "Gollum". This blog article is about the statue made out of either clay, or mud brought to life in Jewish folklore by "the word of God".




WHAT IS A GOLEM?


According to the website "The Jewish Virtual Library:

In Jewish tradition, the golem is most widely known as an artificial creature created by magic, often to serve its creator. The word "golem" appears only once in the Bible (Psalms139:16). In Hebrew, "golem" stands for "shapeless mass." The Talmud uses the word as "unformed" or "imperfect" and according to Talnuduc legend, Adam is called "golem," meaning "body without a soul" (Sanhedrin 38b) for the first 12 hours of his existence. The golem appears in other places in the Talmud as well. One legend says the prophet Jeremiah made a golem 
http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/the-golem

For my readers unfamiliar with the word "Talmud" used in the above paragraph. The Talmud is a collection of writings made from Oral traditions dating back to 536 BC. The Hebrew word Talmud means "instruction, or learning".

While the Hebrew wording of Psalm 139.16 remains the same. With the exception of Orthodox Jews who read the Torah (Old Testament) strictly in Hebrew without any translations. Translations, for those who are either Conservative, or Reformed Jews and for the Christian Bibles, have been updated to modern form for better understanding. Therefore, as I researched in several translations, Psalm 139.16 now translates as:


Your eyes saw my unformed body, and on Your book they were all written; days have been formed and one of them is His.טזגָּלְמִ֚י | רָ֘א֚וּ עֵינֶ֗יךָ וְעַל־סִפְרְךָ֘ כֻּלָּ֪ם יִכָּ֫תֵ֥בוּ יָמִ֥ים יֻצָּ֑רוּ וְל֖וֹ (כתיב וְלֹ֖א) אֶחָ֣ד בָּהֶֽם:

In the above translation "Unformed Body" is actually the modern translation of the Hebrew word "Gaimi (My Golem)".

The above paragraph also referred to the Prophet Jeremiah credited in Jewish tradition as the author of :The Book of Jeremiah", the "Books of the Kings" and the book of "Lamentations". The paragraph references the Talmud mentioning Jeremiah may have created a Golem. We know he was a Prophet from  636 BC. to either 587, or 595 BC. and the creation would have fallen sometime within those years.

THE GOLEM OF SHEM 


The first written account of a Golem appeared in Poland around 1640 by a student of the Kabbalah. The Kabbalah  is an esoteric school of thought in Judaism first seen in the 12th Century. This Kabalist wrote of an incident alleged to have occurred during the life of Rabbi Elijah Ba'al Shem. A different version of the same event is mentioned in my opening paragraph from 108 years later. The Kablist's writing translates as:

And I have heard, in a certain and explicit way, from several respectable persons that one man [living] close to our time, whose name is R. Eliyahu, the master of the name, who made a creature out of matter [Heb. Golem] and form [Heb. tzurah] and it performed hard work for him, for a long period, and the name of emet was hanging upon his neck, until he finally removed it for a certain reason, the name from his neck and it turned to dust."
The above translation is found in Moshe Idel's 1990 work: "Golem: Jewish Magical and Mystical Traditions on the Artificial Anthropoid".  

Rabbi Elijah Ba'al Shem lived in the city of Chelm (Shem) in Eastern Poland. He was born in 1550 and died only 33 years later in 1583. In my opening paragraph he is described as a "Gaon". That Hebrew title was given to scholars and spiritual leaders. In short he was a "Rabbi'"

TWO IMPORTANT POINTS IN THESE ACCOUNTS

I would direct my reader to a line in the 1640 translation. That line reads:

and the name of emet was hanging upon his neck
Which needed to be removed to stop the Golem by turning it into dust. The word EMET translates from the Hebrew as TRUTH.

While the 1748 translation indicates that :

He then removed the Holy Name embedded on his forehead.
The location may have changed, but the word itself never did. So why would such a word be so powerful as to be able to animate a statue? According to the website "Hebrew for Christians":
The Jewish sages sometimes say 'the Seal of God is truth,' since the final letters of the three words that conclude the account of creation--bara Elohim la'asot ("God created to do")--(Genesis 2.3)--spell Emet
Hebrew words are read right to left.

http://www.hebrew4christians.com/Glossary/Word_of_the_Week/Archived/Emet/emet.html

The second major point is found in the 1748 translation and indicates the fear and power of the Golem. Even though it was made either of clay, or mud.
When the Gaon saw that the Golem was growing larger and larger, he feared that the Golem would destroy the Universe.
 "Destroy the Universe" is surely, to the very religious mind, the power of God Almighty. Whose word "Emet" the Golem had upon it.

As I wrote this account took place in the city of Chem (Shem) in Poland. The Polish Golem was not the only account passed down.


THE GOLEM OF PRAGUE
This tale is the most famous and revolved around Rabbi Judah Loew ben Bezalel. He was born either in 1512, or 1526 and died in 1609. The Rabbi is known as either the "Maharal of Prague", or just "The Maharal". The word is derived from a Hebrew acronym "Moreinu Ha-Rav Loew (Our Teacher, Rabbi Loew)".

The other person involved in this tale was Rudolff II, the Holy Roman Emperor from 1576 to his death in 1612. Rudoff II had been elected King of the country known, then, as Bohemia and made Prague his capital in the same 1576.

 Hans von Aachen - Portrait of Emperor Rudolf II.jpg

Above a painting of Rudolff II.

There are two versions as to why "The Maharal" created his Golem to defend the Jewish Ghetto in Prague. Both have to do with edicts and actions of the "Holy Roman Emperor".

The first version resulted from the general Anti-Semitic attacks and pogroms of the Emperor. A "pogrom" is basically the persecution of a particular ethnic group approved by the local authorities.

The other was that by specific order of Rudolff II. All Jews were to be exterminated within the city.

According to the story mud from the Vltava river was formed into a Golem by "The Maharal" and brought to life through rituals and Hebrew incantations. The Golem was named "Joseph" and was known to the Jews of Prague as "Yossele" in Yiddish. According to the tale he could make himself invisible and summon spirits of departed love ones. This Golem had been brought to life after the Rabbi placed the "Shem", a parchment, with "Emet", "The Word of God", written upon it in it's mouth. "Joseph" would be deactivated, by removing the "Shem", at sundown on Fridays to observe the Jewish Sabbath and reactivated at sundown Saturday night.

As the tale goes one Friday evening "The Maharal" forgot to remove the "Shem" and became fearful that "Joseph" would desecrate the Sabbath and become wild. Another version has "Joseph" falling in love with a girl and being rejected. He then goes on a rampage and the Rabbi is able to finally remove the "Shem" causing "Joseph" to break apart. The story further states those pieces were hidden in the attic of the "Old New Synagogue" until the time the Jews of Prague would need defending once again.

Prague Praha 2014 Holmstad Den gammelnye synagogen.JPG

The synagogue was originally built in 1270 and called "The New, or Great Synagogue". In the 16th Century when more synagogues started to be built. The name was changed to "The Old-New Synagogue". It is still in use today. As to that attic. No one is permitted to enter it, but it is said there are no pieces of "Joseph" stored there anyone.

A story is told that during World War 2 a Nazi agent was sent by Hitler to investigate the truth of the tale. He entered the attic one night and found "Joseph" defending it. The Nazi Agent attempted to stab the Golem to death, but was instead killed himself. Another story states that "Joseph's" body parts were removed and buried in a graveyard in Prague's Zizov District. Today the Zizov Television Tower stands upon "Joseph's" grave and he awaits.



Above the statue of Rabbi Loew in Prague's new town hall. Below an 1899 drawing of Rabbi Loew and "Joseph".




Before I move to the filmed versions of this tale. There are other variations of both the "Shem" and "Prague" stories concerning the destruction of the Golem. In these variations the Golem is stopped by removing the first Hebrew letter in the word "Emet" leaving "Met". "Met" in Hebrew means "DEAD".


THE MOTION PICTURES


Paul Wegener's GOLEM


A trilogy about the Golem was produced in Germany. It is true that all three movies had Paul Wegener the same looking Golem, but that was the only reason for calling the three films a true "Trilogy".

The first motion picture came out in 1915 and was entitled simply "Der Golem (The Golem)", This silent feature would be shown in the United States as "Monster of Fate". 

Paul Wegener 2.jpg

Paul Wegener was a German film writer, actor and director during the Expressionist Period of film making in Germany. Paul had started out to be a lawyer, but dropped that field for the legitimate German stage and became an acting student of the famed Max Reinhardt. Reinhardt's other acting students would include Marlene Dietrich, Paul Heinreid, Kurt Kazner, Hedy Lamarr, Francis Lederer (read my article on this forgotten "Dracula"), the director F.W. Murnau (1922's "Noseferatu), and Conrad Veidt (1920's "The Cabinet of Dr. Caliagari" as "Cesare").

Reinhardt like many Jews in the German film industry such as Fritz Lang, Peter Lorre and Curt and Robert Siodmak, (All have blog bio's by me), fled the country at the rise of Adolph Hitler.

Paul Wegener was not Jewish and remained in Germany after Hitler came to full power. Wegener had become a  Nazi "State" Actor and made propaganda and other films. In appearance he was a perfect member of the "National Socialist Party", but in reality Paul Wegener was giving money to German Resistance Groups, hiding people the Nazi's were looking for and actually writing anti-Nazi slogans on walls.

The first photograph in this article is that of Paul Wegener in the 1920 film. The following still is from the earlier 1915 motion picture. The set up with the mirror makes the scene perfect cinema for the period.



The 1915 film's plot is a variation of the Prague Golem love story I mentioned above, but set in modern Germany. An antiques dealer finds the statue of the Golem. The dealer named "Troeder" was played by Henrik Galeen. "Troeder" traces the history of the clay statue and learns how a Kabbalist Rabbi brought it to life four centuries earlier. He recreates the ritual and makes the Golem his servant. However, in the household is "Troeder's" wife "Jessica" portrayed by Lyda Salmonova seen above. Salmonova was both Paul Wegener's third and sixth wife. In the film the Golem falls in love with "Jessica", is rejected, and goes on a murder spree as a result. The "Word of God" is removed at the climax making the Golem once more a inanimated clay statue.



Besides acting in the 1915 feature. PaulWegener and Henrik Galeen co-wrote and co-directed it. Seven years later Galeen was hired to write a version of Bram Stoker's novel "Dracula". He wrongly believed the novel to be under copyright and rewrote it as "Nosferatu" for F.W. Muranu. The German theatrical profession was a close knit group and Henrick Galeen was also a student of Max Reinhardt. As was Max Schreck who played the "Dracula" character.

Below is an ad for the picture used in the large Jewish neighborhood of New York City?



Paul Wegener and his wife Lyda Salmonova were back together two years later for 1917's "Der Golem und die Tanzerin (The Golem and the Dancing Girl)". 



The above poster and the following still are the only known images of this lost motion picture. Which apparently was a movie short and not a full feature film.. It was not a sequel to the 1915 motion picture and only contains the character's costume standing on the left in the photo. Maybe!



Movie historians have been told the feature was a comical parody of the 1915 film and Paul Wegener played himself. He sees the Golem costume and decides to put it on as a joke, but unexpected results take place. What they were there is no record.

Some sources indicate Rochus Gliese also played the Golem. Rochus was the future Academy Award winner for Best Art Direction for the 1927 motion picture "Sunrise". As "The Golem and the Dancing Girl" is alleged to be a comedy. Perhaps some of the comedy resulted in there being two Golems as those unexpected results. One fake and the other real? Just speculation on this blog writers part, but a possibility that might explain two actors in the same role. I imagine something like what happened with three Mummy's, two fake and one real, in 1955's "Abbott and Costello Meet the Mummy".

The third film in Paul Wegener's "Trilogy" is considered a classic piece of silent film horror and inspired sequences in a 1931 Universal Studio horror classic.

1920's "Der Golem, wie er in die Welt kam (The Golem: How He Came into the World)" takes place in medieval Prague and tells the story of Rabbi Loew. The movie is known today simply as "The Golem" and was restored in 2004 for DVD release.



This feature film is actually a prequel to the 1915 motion picture and was written by Wegener and Galeen. Paul Wegener was, once again, the Golem and his wife, Lyda Salmonova, portrayed "Miriam" the daughter of "Rabbi Loew". The role of "Rabbi Loew" was portrayed by Albert Steinruck.



The plot closely follows the Prague Golem story. The film opens with Rabbi Loew reading the stars and informing the Jewish elders that a disaster is about to fall on the community. The Holy Roman Emperor passes a decree that all the Jews must leave the city before the new Moon, or he will send soldiers in to the Ghetto to force them to leave. The Rabbi creates the Golem out of clay from the river to protect the Jewish population.

Below "Rabbi Loew" and his unnamed "Assistant" played by Ernst Deutsch.

004-the-golem-theredlist

Meanwhile the Emperor has sent the "Knight Florian", Lothar Muthel, to see that his decree is carried out.. "Florian", although not Jewish, will fall in love with "Miriam".

f000102_pic_17

The screenplay changes the story of the creation of the Golem. In it "Rabbi Loew" uses "The Book of Abrameiln" to call upon the spirit of "Astaroth", a demon, to help animate the Golem. The book was very popular at the time in Germany, but the translation from the original Hebrew was wrong. The incorrect translation was by Samuel Liddell MacGregor Mathers and entitled "The Book of the Sacred Magic of Abrameiln the Mage". The real Abramelin (Abraham) lived in the town of Worms, Germany, possibly between 1361 to 1458. His writings were based upon the mysticism of a Jewish Priest from ancient Egypt.

In the picture "Loew" also requires the help of his "Assistant" to bring the Golem to life. The spirit of "Astaroth" appears and gives "Rabbi Loew" the magic word needed "Emet". It is placed on a piece of parchment paper and put inside an amulet. The amulet is placed upon the Golem's chest bringing life to the clay. The shape is misleading and is not a "Star of David" as some have assumed.





"Loew" is summoned to the palace by the "Emperor", Otto Gebuhr", and decides to bring the Golem. The court is both terrified, but intrigued by the creature.



Meanwhile "Florian" has gone to meet with "Miriam". However, her father has instructed his "Assistant" to watch over the girl. At the palace "Loew" in an attempt to influence the "Emperor" tells the court the history of the Jewish people by using a magical screen and instructs the court not to make any noise. When the Rabbi reaches the point in his tale about the story of "The Wandering Jew". The court breaks out laughing over it and suddenly the palace begins to crumble. The Golem saves them by holding up the roof.



As a reward the "Emperor" will not exile the Jewish population of Prague. "Rabbi Loew" returns to the Jewish Ghetto to inform the people they will not have to leave. A celebration begins in the streets and "Loew" removes the piece of paper from the amulet and the Golem is just a statue.

However, his "Assistant" goes in search of "Miriam" and discovers her in bed with "Florian". The "Assistant" reanimates the Golem and instructs it to remove "Florian" from the "Rabbi's" house. A problem arises, because the well meaning "Assistant" can not control the "Spirit of Astaroth" within the amulet. Instead of taking "Florian" out of the house and into the street as the "Assistant" thought would happen while scaring the man away for good. The Golem takes "Florian" to the roof of the house and throws him off of it. Horrified over what has happened the "Assistant" runs to the Synagogue to get the "Rabbi". When the two return the Golem has set fire to the house and "Miriam" is now missing.



The Golem is causing destruction to the Ghetto while dragging "Miriam" around by her hair. The "Rabbi" performs a ritual and removes the influence of "Astaroth". The Golem suddenly stops, leaves "Miriam" in the street, and heads for the Ghetto's gate.

At this point I want to bring up the name of the Cinematographer for the motion picture Karl Freund. Freund is best known for his cinematography on Fritz Lang's "Metropolis". In 1931 he was cinematographer for Tod Browning on "Dracula". In which, without screen credit, he actually assisted directing. In 1932 Freund was both the cinematographer on "Murders in the Rue Morgue" and directed the "The Mummy" starring Boris Karloff. In 1935 he also directed the Peter Lorre vehicle "Mad Love" while also being the films cinematographer.

Freund's cinematography for the 1920 motion picture helped to create a series of classic sequences that would be copied in 1931 by James Whale for "Frankenstein". One of the most famous sequences Freund set up and filmed for the 1920 "Golem" was almost exactly copied by Whale

After the Golem breaks through the Ghetto's gates he comes upon a group of children. All but one little girl run away.

In the 1920 "Golem" she holds an apple for Wegener.

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In the 1931 "Frankenstein" the girl holds a flower for Karloff.



The influence of the 1920 film on Whale is obvious throughout "Frankenstein", but it is this scene that film historians bring to the forefront. The only real difference is the little girl is accidentally killed by the Monster (Golem) in 1931. While in 1920 it is the little girl who removes the amulet ending the living state of the statue.

 

I would point out that it has long been believed that Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley used the legend of the Golum for the basis to build her novel "Frankenstein, or the Modern Prometheus" upon.

The influence of Paul Wegener's version of the "Golem" has remained throughout the decades and even "Homer Simpson" came face to face with it. The scene below is from "The Treehouse of Horror XVII" on November 5, 2006. The episode was entitled "You Gotta Know When to Golem".




LE GOLEM
In 1936 the first sound film about the Golem was released. The motion picture was a French and Czechoslovakian co-production and is considered a sequel to the 1920 German motion picture. Except "Rabbi Loew" is now "Rabbi Jacob" and his daughter "Miriam" is now the Rabbi's wife "Rachel".

The movie is known by two names and has three different running times. The original French/Czechoslovakian release "Le Golem" runs 95 minutes in length. It was released for a London premier in 1938 as "The Golem" with apparently the original running time. However, the general release in the U.K as."The Legend of Prague" was cut to 83 minutes. While the version that was released in the United States under that same title in 1937 only runs 70 minutes.



The film  uses elements from both of the Golem  histories I mentioned at the start of this article. The feature stars Harry Baur as "Rudolph II".



Charles Dorat portrays "Rabbi Jacob"..



Roger Karl was "Chancellor Lang" and Germaine Aussey as "Countess Strada".



The plot has the Jews in the Prague Ghetto being oppressed by "Rudolph". They want "Rabbi Jacob" to re-animate the Golem that is kept in an attic by the Rabbi. The Golem in this film is portrayed by Czech actor Ferdinand Hart. It has more of a human appearance than in the German silents.



There is a riot over the lack of food and "Rudolph's" mistress the "Countess Strada" is rescued from the rioters by "De Trignac", Roger Cuchesne, who is in love with her. He has been injured and is taken to the home of "Rabbi Jacob" by the Rabbi's wife "Rachel", Jany Holt.

"Rudolph" becomes engaged to his Cousin Isabel of Spain and this angers the Countess. She uses her charms on "De Trignac: to steal the Golem. The prefect of police informers "Rudolph" of the Golem's disappearance from the attic. "Rabbi Jacob" is summoned to the palace and told if any Jews are found to have any relationship to the disappearance. They will be hung.

The Golem is found by "Rudolph" and chained in a prison cell in the palace dungeon. At which point "Rudolph" attempts to bring it to life. Not succeeding he starts torturing the Jewish leaders to either find out the means, or force "Rabbi Jacob" to bring the Golem to life to stop the torturing. "Rudolph" then imprisons the "Rabbi", but overlooks his daughter "Rachel".



Where director James Whale's 1931"Frankenstein" borrowed from Paul Wegener's 1920's "The Golem". Here director Julien Duivier borrows from Whale's "Frankenstein" for part of his conclusion.

"Rachel" enters the dungeons and locates the Golem. On it's forehead she writes the word "Emet"/

.




There is one added factor to this story not in the originals. After the word "Emet" has been placed upon the Golum's head. It will not awake "Until the Beasts Roars". There just happens to be a cage of lions near the cell and "Rachel" makes them "Roar". The Golem for the last 15 minutes of the movie now comes to life.

The Golem snaps its chains and with the freed lions roam the palace causing panic. "Rudolph" escapes as "Lang" and the others of the court are murdered by the living statue. Meanwhile "Rachel" rescues her husband and the other Jewish leaders. "Rabbi Jacob" erases the first letter of the word "Emet" on the Golem's forehead changing it to "Met" the word for "Dead". The Golem  dissolves as the film ends with "Rudolph's" benevolent brother Mathias approached Prague to take over rule.

The website "Films de France .com" has a review of this motion picture. They look at the way both "Rudolph III" and "Chancellor Lang" are portrayed as compared to two specific persons in Germany.

Speaking first of actor Harry Baur the article reads the he:
----is the obvious casting choice for the role of the debauched and ever so slightly deranged Emperor Rudolph II. Baur was always at his best in colorful roles such as this and his unashamedly over-the-top performance is the film's main delight--he is more frightening than the animated lump of clay of the film's title. Roger Karl is almost as chilling (with a genuinely creepy Nazi-like aura) as Baur's right hand man, Chancellor Lang. If we dare to liken Baur's Emperor Rudolph to Adolf Hitler, it naturally follows that Lang is Heinrich Himmler.
Adding :
The only thing preventing us from enjoying Le Golem as a wicked black comedy is the fact that it is so depressingly prescient of the fate that would befall the Jews in the ghettos within a few years of the film being made.
http://www.filmsdefrance.com/review/le-golem-1936.html


THE EMPEROR AND THE GOLEM


This 1951 feature was made in Czechoslovakia and the literal translation of the title shown on the following poster is "Emperor's Baker - The Baker's Emperor". 



Like Paul Wegener's 1917 "The Golem and the Dancing Girl" this was partly a comedy, but with a Soviet Block political slant. The "Golem" is more an afterthought to lure audiences in. The picture was filmed in color which was unusual for Czechoslovakia at the time, but they were thinking of International Distribution. The original release "In Country" and within the "Soviet Block" was shown in two parts. The first ran 86 minutes and the second 69 minutes. For that International release the two parts were combined into a 112 minute Foreign language film with subtitles. The shorter running time, than the total of the two parts, was from the removal of 43 minutes of "Soviet Block" propaganda that included some songs.

The setting for the feature is once again Prague under the rule of  "Rudolph II" portrayed by Jan Werich. However, there is no Rabbi, or Jewish Ghetto/ The religious aspect of the Golem has been completely removed, after all this is from a Communist Country, with the exception of using the "Shem" to bring it to life.

Part One has "Rudolph" obsessed over the idea of a Golem.

The first part has "Rudolph" with a group of comic alchemists all trying to impress him. One hit's a anvil with a hammer and claims to have split the Atom. Another is constantly experimenting by creating scientific machines. While in truth they are all new ways to cook sausage.

Besides the Emperor the only other real life character is "Edward Kelley" played by Jiri Plachy. "Kelley" was a British occultist and self-proclaimed spirit medium.

Edward Kelly prophet or seer to Dr Dee 02355.jpg


Marie Vasova portrays "Rudolph's" mistress "Countess Katharina Strada". The Countess spends most of Part One trying to get "Rudolph" to marry her,



The baker enters the story by being overwhelmed with hungry citizens at his shop wanting bread and rolls, because of everything the baker is making goes to the Emperor. He decides to give them all the rolls and bread he just made for the Emperor. As a result the Baker finds himself arrested and in the dungeon.

Meanwhile "Edward Kelley" reveals a Homunculus that he has created for the Emperor.

"Katelina" and "Matej" start communicating through vents in her room and fall in love sight on seen.  A character named "Alessandro Scotta" creates an elixir of youth for the gullible Emperor. It is in actually some alcohol mixed with morphine and presents it to him. Thus ends Part One without seeing a Golem..

Part Two opens with "Rudolph" drinking the fake elixir of youth and falling asleep. This will begin a series of mistaken identities. The Baker "Matej" escapes from his cell and makes his way through the palace ending up in the Emperor's room and hides. "Rudolph" looking at mirror does not see himself, but "Matej's" reflection and thinks he's now young again. He gets his loyal servant and without telling anyone else the two leave for the countryside. "Matej" comes out of hiding just as other servants enter and believe him to be the now rejuvenated "Rudolph". They dress "Matej" as the Emperor and this starts the entire court believing that the Emperor is now younger, because he drank the elixir.

The "Countess  Strada" drinks the reminder of the elixir and promptly falls asleep. At this point all "Matej" wanted was to be with "Katelina", but suddenly seeing himself in the mirror realizes that he resembles the Emperor. With the Emperor gone "Matej" sets about to correct "Rudolph's" edicts for the good of the people.

As this is taking place "Alessandro Scotta" knowing the elixir was fake joins with "Matej" to correct all the wrongs. The start by getting rid of all the people attempting to con the Emperor. Then "Matej" settles the affairs of the waiting foreign ambassadors whom "Rudolph" was just ignoring.

Intrigue continues as "Edward Kelley", the Chamberlain "Lang" played by Bohus Zahorsky, "General Rusworm" played by Zdenek Stepanek and the "Court Astrologer" played by Frantisek Folipovsky plot to take over the country and assassinate the Emperor. "Kelley" wants to have the "Sirael" personality of "Katelina' kill "Rudolph". Who happens to be "Matej" at the moment. This back fires as the "Sirael" personality disappears. When "Katelina" and "Matej" can finally express their love for each other. "Kelley" awakes the Golem. The comical aspects of the motion picture are basically forgotten at this point.

There is infighting between the conspirators and the General kills everybody and wants to use the now awakened Golem to take over the world. Only problem is the Golem will only follow the orders of the person who placed the "Shem" its mouth and the General has already killed him.



The above is the Golem seen in the feature. It obviously has a human shaped body, but no features of identification as the previous versions have had. It also does not fit really the actual legends related to Prague. In some respects it's too cute to be so deadly.





The General is killed by the Golem, but now it is on a rampage. The real "Rudolph II" returns to the chaos. "Matej" told "Katerina" and "Scotta" to go get help from the townspeople who arrive the same time as the returning Emperor. Our hero succeeds in removing the "Shem" from the Golem's mouth stopping him. "Rudolph", now a changed Emperor, is reinstalled and "Matej" convinces him to give the Golem to the people.

The film ends with "Matej" and "Katerina" running the bake shop making enough rolls and other bake goods for the city of Prague, the Emperor and his Court. Reason: the Golem is providing the heat for the oven and assisting the now married "Matej" and "Katerina". As they live happily ever after in 1951 "Soviet Block" contentment.

The following is from the website for the "Jewish Museum of Berlin" entitled BLOGERIM about the motion picture:

Decades later the four-meter-high film prop, on the other hand, would generate a legal battle: the sculptor who designed the film’s golem, Jaroslav Horejc, had a daughter and she claimed the rights to reproduce its image. In the streets of Prague, in the wax museum, on corporate signage — you encounter the iconic figure simply everywhere. In 2010 a Prague court awarded her the copyright to the film’s golem, succeeding her father.  
The golem of Horejc’s sculpture was the first figure of this kind to appear without any human features, whose robotic image emphasized aspects of modern everyday reality. Horejc’s golem became a source of visual inspiration. Similar to Paul Wegener’s golem with the unmistakable hair-do, who re-emerged in the Simpsons episode You Gotta Know When to Golem, or to the ghostly figure from Hugo Steiner-Prag’s lithography, whom Lord Voldemort uncannily resembled in the Harry Potter films, Horejc’s steam-machine from The Emperor and the Golem established its very own golem stock look.
http://www.jmberlin.de/blog-en/2016/12/bread-and-golems/

This is one of the Golem drawings by Hugo Steiner from about 1915 referenced above. Followed by an uncanny resemblance of "Lord Voldemort" in the "Harry Potter" films.






THE GOLEM MEETS ALFRED HITCHCOCK'S "PSYCHO"


In July 1967 a British Motion Picture made in the Horror Style of the 1950's productions from Hammer Films was released. The picture was set in modern England and tells the story of the discovery of the Golem of Prague. The original one word title was also a throw back to the titles used in 1950's Science Fiction/Horror movies made in the United States. |

The screenplay was written by Herbert J. Leder. He was a Professor in the "Media Art's Department" at "New Jersey City University" in New Jersey. His early 1950's television screenplays included episodes of "Captain Video and his Video Rangers" and "The Loretta Young Show". In 1958 Professor Leder wrote the screenplay for the very entertaining science fiction picture "Fiend Without A Face". Among his work as a director are 1960's "Pretty Boy Floyd" and 1966's "The Frozen Dead". Both from his own screenplays.

That title that I originally viewed this motion picture under was simply called "IT!". Howver, the feature which Professor Leder directed had two additional titles "IT, Anger of the Golem" and "IT!, Curse of the Golem". The posters used for the original release were also throw backs to those 1950's American and British Horror films.


As the above poster indicates the feature starred Roddy McDowall, He was one year away from the first of the original "Planet of the Apes" series and a major restart of his career. His co-star was actress Jill Haworth. Haworth had appeared in three major motion pictures. They were 1960's "Exodus", 1963's "The Cardinal" and 1965's "In Harms Way". Otherwise she was appearing in French films and American television.

The plot uses the 1748 story and unlike the other films makes it clear that the Golem is indestructible and all powerful.

The story opens with a fire at a warehouse for the "London Museum" that contains only items from Prague, Czechoslovankia.



Everything inside has been destroyed, but somehow a statue remains as if the fire never happened. The curator "Harold Grove", Ernest Clark, and his assistant "Arthur Pimm", Roddy McDowall, are called by "Police Inspector White", Noel Trevarthen, and after introductions and a quick overview of the fire. The two are left alone to inspect the damage. After seeing the statue and noticing an inscription on the its side. "Grove" sends "Pimm" to get a flashlight and as "Arthur" leaves there is a sudden scream and he returns to find "Grove" lying dead at the foot of the statue. Also the umbrella he saw "Grove" place across the statues arms is now impossibly on the ground. Looking at the statue the arms now appear to be in a different position from when the umbrella was first placed across them.

Later when the 3,000 pound statue is placed in the museum/ The hands have returned to their original position and "Pimm" is still uncertain about what he thought he saw at the fire site.






As written "Pimm" is definitely like Alfred Hitchcock's "Norman Bates", but so where many characters following the release of "Psycho" in 1960. Both William Castle's 1961 "Homicidal" and Hammer Films own 1963 "Paranoiac" go down the "Psycho" road ..

In this film Roddy McDowall's "Arthur Pimm" keeps his mother's corpse in his apartment and talks to it as if she is still alive. While he "borrows" jewels and other items from the museum to temporary give to her. As in one scene discusses making diner for her and his day at work.







I recently watched the film, which like the 1920 and 1936 features, are at present available on the Internet for free viewing. As to Roddy McDowall's "Pimm". I fully agree with the website "Vintage 45's Blog" speaking to the tone of Leder's feature:
This is billed as a horror film but it’s also a dark comedy. Roddy McDowell makes it a must see for anyone who likes to see an actor having a great time. He’s Arthur Pimm, an assistant museum curator with not just a screw loose but the whole hardware store.
https://vintage45.wordpress.com/2016/05/03/it-curse-of-the-golem-1967/

"Arthur" also is in love with the late "Harold Grove's" daughter "Ellen", Jill Haworth, and wants her to visit with his mother. In one sequence, after the Golem has killed, "Pimm" fantasies about "Ellen" only to have the vision turn into his mother's corpse.



Returning to the statue. After it is first moved into the museum for display. "Arthur" finds two workers arguing and one tells him that they've never argued about anything before and he believes its the influence of the statue which is somehow evil. "Pimm" just thinks the worker is trying to make an excuse for their actions. but after they leave. Another worker enters to set up the lighting for the statue's exhibit and he could care less about it. The worker lights a cigarette, blows smoke on the statue and the 3,000 pound figure just falls over on top of him.

This brings "Inspector White" out again and "Pimm" expresses his belief the two deaths might be murder. That leads to the newspapers running headlines about the killer statue's "Curse" and long lines of people wanting to see it. Which actually upsets the museum's manager. The manager informs "Pimm" that he is getting a raise of three pounds a week, but not the curator's job he wanted. It will go to a more senior man and also the statue is being sold to a New York Museum.

The representative from the New York Museum arrives to authenticate the Golem. Talking to "Pimm", "Jim Perkins" played by Paul Maxwell, tells the other man the legend of the Golem. While speaking "Perkins" finds the Hebrew name "Judah Loew" on one side and on the opposite the same wording "Harold Grove" had seen. "Perkins" asks "Pimm", if he had done a rubbing to copy the inscription for translation and is told no.

"Pimm" decides to do a rubbing and takes it to a "Rabbi". The "Rabbi" is concerned about what he has translated and asks "Pimm" about its source and is told. The "Rabbi" warns "Pimm" that he has found the real Golem of legend and to leave it alone.



Next he reads out loud:






Power bringeth destruction; beware, lest it be unleashed.
He who will find the secret of my life at his feet, him will I serve until beyond time.
He who shall evoke me in the 17th century, beware, for I cannot by fire be destroyed.
He who shall evoke me in the 18th century, beware, for I cannot by fire or by water be destroyed.
He who evokes me in the 19th century, beware, for I cannot by fire or by water or by force be destroyed.
He who in the 20th century shall dare evoke me, beware, for neither by fire, nor water, nor force, nor anything by man created can I be destroyed.
He who in the 21st century evokes me must be of God's hand himself because on this earth the person of man existeth no more."


"Pimm" finds the hidden scroll in the Golem's right foot and brings it to life. In walks the new curator and "Pimm" still not believing he controls the statue in rage orders it to kill the other man. The statue walks off the stand, lifts it arm up and brings it down on the curator's neck.

As the story progresses "Ellen" and "Jim" are falling in love. "Pimm" convinces "Ellen" to join him for lunch and tries to get the girl to go to the French Rivera with him. As they talk she makes mention of the bridge across the waterway they eating beside. "Pimm" makes the remark that he can bring the bridge down. The same night using the Golem he destroys the bridge and calls "Ellen".

"Pimm" thinking he can destroy the Golem makes the mistake of ordering it to swallow the scroll. Now, as he will find out later from "Jim Perkins", there is no way to stop the Golem. He orders the statue to walk into the deepest part of the Thames River.



The next morning thinking the Golem is destroyed "Pimm" comes to work, now as the museum curator, and calls the head of security to ask if everything is all right. He's told nothing usual has happened and walks to the room where the status was on display and finds the Golem in its place. Next he tries to burn it forgetting that it was in the warehouse fire to begin with.

Things progress and "Inspector White" feels "Pimm" is behind the deaths, but has no evidence. While "Jim Perkins" believes "Pimm" may have brought the statue to life and gets him to confess. He also confesses to having had the statue swallow the scroll making it impossible for any person to stop it. "Inspector White" was in hiding, heard everything, and has "Pimm" arrested and committed to an asylum.

From his room "Pimm" mentally calls the Golem and is freed He next kidnaps "Ellen" and takes her, his mother and the Golem to "The Cloisters". A building owned by the museum out in the countryside. This all leads to the climax with the military now involved.

Below left to right: Tom Chatto as the "Army Officer", Noel Trevarthen as "Inspector White" and Paul Maxwell as "Jim Perkins".



"Pimm" instructs the Golem to guard the gate and kill anyone that tries to enter. First the military attempts to shoot the statue without success. Next they use a bazooka followed by a howitzer. Both without scratching the Golem.





Then being the military authorization to use a small nuclear device is given by Palriment. Explaining there nothing to worry about, because the device only has a radius of one square mile and they've evacuated five square miles. In the end "Ellen" is rescued at the last moment and the nuclear bomb is set off.




There is no question "Pimm" and his "Mother" are no more, but when the bomb blast is clearing and all eyes are on the target.




The Golem is still alive and walks toward the Atlantic Sea board to end the film.




There is a film made by Israeli producer and director Amos Gitai. The feature is the third part of what is called his "Exile Trilogy". The story is set in modern day Paris and tells of the creation of a female Golem. The title of the 1995 release is "Golem: The Spirit of the Exile". According to the website "Movies.com" the plot for the picture is:

In modern-day Paris, a cabalist known as the Maharal has created a golem, an artificial being constructed of earth and clay, infused with spirit through the recitation of a special formula. The legendary being he brings to life is known in this instance as "The Spirit of Exile," and the magician's goal in creating her was to create a protector for Jews in need of one. In this movie, the golem is motivated to assist numerous people whose lives are marked by tragedy. In the main story, she must try to help Shemesh, a woman whose many troubles cause her to resemble the Biblical character of Job. She has been evicted from her home after her husband and sons die, and she and her daughter-in-law must find some means for surviving their difficult situation

http://www.movies.com/golem-spirit-exile/details/m34382



In 2000 Italian director and screenplay writer Louis Nero filmed an updated, but period remake of the 1920 "The Golem: How He Came Into the World".



As to the film's plot/ I could only find the following on IMDb and it appears to be by Louis Nero himself, but there is no name showing or the source.

Golem is a feature film shotted in digital-beta. I have used external of Turin and Praga and Lion, taking advantage me of the contribution of the Piemonte Region and the great availability of the Jewish community of Turin that has kindly granted to me to have use of the synagogue for some scenes. It is cinema of search, therefore careful to the language, it is video - art in the aesthetic search, it is spreading of one important culture. I have used actors of theatre interested to the thematic discussed like Moni Ovadia, I have tried to photograph Praga in order to discover the essence, but above all I have tried to penetrate in one immense simbology. I am inspired to Greenaway and the video-art, having known well. The variants of the golemlegende introduce the golem like a dumb one puppet with stature from giant, we think to the reading of Wegener of the romance of Meyrink in "der Golem, wie er in die Welt kam" where the scenography of Poltzig inspired to the espressionism concur to create a mysterious atmosphere rich of references to the cabalistic enigmas. The concept of "gòjlem", but, implies also a something of unfinished, embryonic. In talmud a woman who has not still conceived or a water jug that has need of smoothing defines "golem". How many legends can boast therefore a great symbolic field? The golem that it traces the myth of Adam, the golem put molding on from the Rabbi Low who in order to give life to the colossus reads piece of the Sefer Jezira and slip it into mouth the schem, the golem Polish that in face it has written "emet" and in order to make to die it is only necessary that to cancel the first letter, it is a symbolic image of the way towards the redemption, the materialized collective spirit of the ghetto, he is who saves the Hebrew from the pogrom, is the dream of the man of become Jahve Elohim, the passion that grows to excess and destroys the man, the creation that exceeds its actor. It is dream, therefore material cinematographic for excellence, decomposition and dealt entirety resetting therefore with a division of the scenic picture, field-versus field that it creates the fragmentarines of all. A evocative cinematographic image as it is the figure, like it is the legend, a digital creation, essentially a history that it must be told, have ud also with the insertion of the hypertext, with the same impalpable consistency who have the hallucinations.

I also know that Richard Arthur portrayed "Rabbi Yehudah (Judah) Loew". Instead of "Rudolph II" the cast list indicates Mark Yungblut as "The King of Bavaria".So the story apparently takes place in Germany rather than what became Czechoslovakia. The rest of the characters making up a total of 12 actors in the picture portrayed characters with names such as :Yitzchak Katz", "Caine", and "Tycho Brahe".

There are other motion pictures using the idea of a "Golem", but not in the religious sense of these films or the concept. All eight of these films, as of this writing, appear to be the only one's referring to the Biblical "Gaimi (My Golem)" and it's power. A power that depending upon my readers beliefs comes directly from "The Word of God" "EMET"!











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