Monday, April 1, 2019

BEFORE CAPTAIN MARVEL....THERE WAS CAPTAIN MARVEL: The Evolution of the Character 1939 to 2019

This is the History of "CAPTAIN MARVEL". From the characters 1939 creation through the current 2019 motion picture of that title. For those who have never read any of the comic books and are only familiar with the feature film. This is not just the life of "Carol Susan Jane Danvers". Although she is one part of the story.

THE ORIGINAL CAPTAIN MARVEL

His name was Wilford Hamilton Fawcett, not Stan Lee, and a veteran of the Spanish-American War in the Philippines. Which he had participated in at the age of 16 in 1901. During World War One Fawcett rose to the rank of Army Captain and was known by his nickname of "Captain Billy". During the first World War he also wrote for "Stars and Stripes" and between both of his wars was a Police Reporter for the "Minnesota Journal".

 

After being discharged from the Army and with the help of his four sons, In October 1919 Wilford Hamilton Fawcett wrote and published a small group of off color jokes he called "Capt. Billy's Whiz Bang". The joke book became a nationwide hit and "Fawcett Publishing" was born.



In 1928 the company started to publish "Mechanix Illustrated" to compete with the likes of "Popular Science". By the late 1930's "Fawcett Publishing" had 40 publications. Two other of Wilford Hamilton'magazines, still found today, are "Family Circle", first published in 1932, and "Women's Day" first published in 1937.

A decision to enter the lucrative comic book market was made with two different publication titles. The first "Fawcett Comics" story was to have had six super heroes, but it was decided to combine them into one character with the powers of all six. Writer Bill Parker came up with the name and story for "Captain Thunder" and it was illustrated by staff artist Charles Clarence "C.C." Beck.

According to Beck in an interview with Tom Heintjes republished during 2015 in "Hogan's Alley":
When Bill Parker and I went to work on Fawcett’s first comic book in late 1939, we both saw how poorly written and illustrated the superhero comic books were. We decided to give our reader a real comic book, drawn in comic-strip style and telling an imaginative story, based not on the hackneyed formulas of the pulp magazine, but going back to the old folk-tales and myths of classic times.
The first "Captain Thunder" story actually appeared in both the company's new "Flash Comics #1" and "Thrill Comics #1".



Unfortunately after the two comic books were released. It was discovered that the names "Captain Thunder", "Thrill Comics" and "Flash Comics" were already trademarked and all three names had to be dropped. It appeared "Fawcett Comics" had started and ended at the same time.

Then circulation director Roscoe Kent Fawcett got an idea from another comic publisher. Author Benito Cereno in his book "The Power of Shazam" quotes Roscoe Fawcett as telling his staff:
Give me a Superman, only have his other identity be a 10 or 12-year-old boy rather than a man.
The new character still looked like "Captain Thunder", but was renamed "Captain Marvelous". A name shortened by the editing department to "Captain Marvel".

Wilford Hamilton Fawcett died on February 7, 1940, but had lived to see his son's creation hit the news stands. The second issue of  "Whiz Comics" showed a cover date of February 1940, the month Roscoe Kent Fawcett's father passed away, but it was actually released the previous December in 1939. Such is the confusion those comic book issue dates still cause us.



The young boy was 12 year old orphan "Billy Batson". "Billy" is feeding himself by selling newspapers. One evening he sees a strange man. Who intrigues the boy to follow him into a subway station. There awaits a train with an even stranger looking car that "Billy Batson" enters. The train seems to disappear and reappear in another dimension. Where the boy meets the Wizard "Mamaragan".


The Wizard deems the boy worthy of becoming his champion and tells him about the magic word "Shazam". Which according to "Mamaragan" is created from the name of six mighty heroes:

"S" the wisdom of Solomon
"H" the strength of Hercules
"A" the stamina of Atlas
"Z" the power of Zeus
"A" the courage of Achiles
"M" the speed of Merecury

"Billy Batson" is told to say "Shazam" and transforms into "Captain Marvel".

Unknown to the brothers now owning "Fawcett Publications". Their problems over "Captain Marvel" had just started. Both the idea of a different "Superman" and the cover art of that first "Whiz Comic". Would bring a comparisons with the cover art used on "Action Comics #1". This comparison would grow for "Detective Comics (DC)" and come to ahead in 1941.



The character of "Captain Marvel" expanded as sales started to out sell "Superman".

"Whiz Comics #21
, in 1941 before Pearl Harbor, introduced "Lieutenants Marvel".  Three other new super hero young boys are all named "Billy Batson" and came from three different parts of the United States. One comes from Brooklyn, New York and to avoid name confusion is called "Fat Billy", the one from the Western United States is called "Tall Billy" and the "Billy" from the Southern United States is given the obvious nick name of "Hill Billy". All three are told by the original "Billy Batson" how to become "Captain Marvel's" by saying "Shazam".



A inside joke was that  "Fat Billy" looked like Fawcett staff member Frank Taggart, "Tall Billy" looked like Paul Beck and Ed Hamilton was "Hill Billy".

Also during 1941 "Whiz Comics #25" saw the introduction of "Captain Marvel, Jr.". He was a disabled newsboy "Freddie Freeman".





Below the first cover of his own comic book "Captain Marvel Adventures". The comic was 68 pages long and carries no publication date. According to the Library of Congress that date of issue was January 17, 1941. Meaning it was running concurrently with "Captain Marvel's" appearances in "Whiz Comics" and other Fawcett publications.



In 1942 "Captain Marvel Adventures #18" had the introduction of "Billy Batson's" twin sister "Mary Batson" as "Mary Marvel".



Another 1942 "Fawcett Comic" entry featured "Captain Marvel", "Mary Marvel" and "Captain Marvel, Jr." as "The Marvel Family".


The character of "Captain Marvel" came to the motion picture screen 7 years prior to "Superman", on March 28, 1941. The picture would contribute to the continuing success of the character and creation of the spin-off characters.

"Adventures of Captain Marvel" was a 12 Chapter serial from "Republic Pictures" with an overall running time of 216 minutes.



The role of "Billy Batson" was portrayed by 25 year old Frank Coghlan, Jr. When the United States entered World War 2, Coghlan, who had been a child actor, enlisted in the Navy. He became a career Naval Aviator and would return to acting later in his life.



The title role of "Captain Marvel" went to "B" Cowboy actor Tom Tyler. Tyler had portrayed "Luke Plummer" in director John Ford's 1939 classic "Stagecoach" and portrayed Universal Studio's "Mummy" between Boris Karloff and Lon Chaney, Jr.



My article on Tom Tyler may be read at:

http://www.bewaretheblog.com/2017/01/tom-tyler-b-cowboy-star-who-became.html

Part of an expedition to Siam's "Valley of the Tombs", searching for the secret of the "Scorpion Kingdom", is radio operator "Billy Batson". The members of the expedition discover a crypt with a warning not to enter, but everyone except "Billy" go in and discover the "Golden Scorpion". This is a device using crystals that when set in a certain way, becomes a powerful weapon. That fact is discovered when the scientists accidentally cause an explosion sealing them inside the crypt.

The cave-in leads to the Wizard known  as "Shazam" revealing himself to "Billy Batdon". Then giving "Billy" the power to become "Captain Marvel" by saying the Wizard's name. Which the young man does and rescues the trapped scientists.







As the crystal lenses are needed to make the "Golden Scorpion" work. They are divided between members of the expedition. One remains in the crypt to avoid any one member gaining the "Scorpions" power.

Tom Tyler in Adventures of Captain Marvel (1941)

Of course there is a power mad villain and he takes on the obvious name of "The Scorpion".



Once back in the United States "The Scorpion" starts killing off the members of the expedition to get the lenses. It is up to "Billy Barton" and "Captain Marvel", in true cliffhanger style, to find out who "The Scorpion" actually is and stop him.

Republic Pictures used a dummy on a pulley system to make "Captain Marvel" fly. Along with close-ups of Tom Tyler.





Next the reminding members of the expedition return to the area around the crypt. There they are attacked by local protectors of the "Golden Scorpion" and "Captain Marvel" stops them.



However, by accident the scientist who is "The Scorpion" has observed "Captain Marvel" transforming back into "Billy Batson". He has his henchmen capture the young radio operator and they place a gag over his mouth.

Watching the final chapter the audience is just waiting for the gag to come out of "Billy's" mouth. Under questioning by "The Scorpion", "Billy" nods his head that he will tell them how he becomes "Captain Marvel". The gag is removed and "Billy Batson's" first word is:
SHAZAM!
The identity of "The Scorpion" is revealed and the leader of the native proterctors uses the Holy idol's death ray to kill him. Followed by "Captain Marvel" tossing the "Golden Scorpion" into the lava of the volcano.

 

Shortly after the serial was released "Detective Comics". later known as "National Comics Publication" then "National Periodical Publications" and finally just "DC Comics". filed a lawsuit against both "Fawcett Publications" and "Republic Pictures" over copyright infringement. They charged that "Captain Marvel" was a copy of  "Superman".
For the next 7 years out of court litigation took place, but finally the lawsuit went to trial in 1948. Although the presiding Judge agreed that "Captain Marvel" was an infringement on the copyrighted character of "Superman". It was also noted that "National Periodical Publications" had been negligent in copyrighting some of their Daily Newspaper strips. According to the Judge this meant they had abandoned the "Superman" copyright. Therefore, the case, in 1951, was ruled in favor of "Fawcett Publications".
"National" appealed and appellate Judge Leonard Hand made his ruling in 1952. The copyright for the character of Superman" was still valid. However, the character of "Captain Marvel", of itself, was not an infringement of the copyright, but certain situations in both the comic book stories and the serial were. The specific instances would have to be determined in a new trial and Judge Hand referred the case back to the lower court.

Instead of a new trial "Fawcett" settled with "DC" out of court. "Fawcett Publications" would no longer make comic books with the "Captain Marvel" character and pay $400,000 in damages.

The first real impact of the agreement saw "Fawcett" shut down their entire comic division and lat off that staff. "Whiz Comics" ended with issue #155 in June 1953, "Captain Marvel Adventures" was stopped after issue #150 in November of 1953, "The Marvel Family" stopped in January 1954 with issue #89 and the other publications had been stopped prior to 1954.

Two of the original comic book staff for "Captain Marvel", Otto Binder and Kurt Shaffenberger, actually moved to "DC" to work on the related "Superman" titles. Shaffenberger placed an unauthorized image of "Captain Marvel" in issue #63 of "Superman's Girlfriend Lois Lane". More about "DC" later.

THE BRITISH CAPTAIN MARVEL
Len Miller and his Company "L. Miller and Sons, Ltd" had been publishing black and white reprints of "Captain Marvel" along with other "Fawcett" titles in the United Kingdom. Then the lawsuit hit.

Miller's business was booming in the U.K. and he decided to find another source for "Captain Marvel". He went to British comic book writer, artist and publisher Mick Angelo for help. The two men came up with the perfect knockoff of "Captain Marvel". They named him "Marvelman" and he first appeared instead of issue #65 of "The Adventures of Captain Marvel"  in February 1954.



The story line is also a rip off. Young reporter "Micky Moran" encounters an astrophysicist who gives him super powers based upon atomic energy not magic. To become "Marvelman", "Micky Moran" must say the word "Kimota". Which is "Atomic" spelled backwards. Before Len Miller and Mick Angelo were done. The two men had turned "Captain Marvel, Jr." into "Marvelman, Jr." and "The Marvel Family" into "The Marvelman Family". Apparently their U.K. readers thought these were still the original "Fawcett Publications" just with different names.

THE ANDROID CAPTAIN MARVEL
"Fawcett Publications" had registered "Captain Marvel" as a trademark. However, as a  result of the lawsuit against the company. "Fawcett" made another decision and let their rights to that trademarked name run out. Once it was no longer "Fawcett's" the name was now available to any publisher.

The first comic publisher to take advantage of the name was the short lived "M.F. Enterprises" owned by artist and publisher Myron Fass. Fass created an android with jet powered boots and laser eyes. He was sent to Earth by aliens from a dying planet and on his shirt was an embroidered letter "M". Which was also the source of his powers.

This "Captain Marvell" premiered for April 1966.

  

The Android, calling himself the "Human Robot", had a secret identity. He was College Professor "Rodger Winkle". "Rodger" had a young ward named "Billy Baxton". During his short run that ended with a November 1966 issue. The Android "Captain Marvel" fought a villain, twice, that upset "DC" and looking at the following cover art. The obvious reason takes little figuring out.

 


SPEAKING OF DETECTIVE COMICS

In 1968 "DC" wanted to bring back "Captain Marvel" exactly as 'Fawcett Publications" wrote and drew him, but discovered that Mick Angelo had purchased the rights to that character. To get around that problem in February 1973 "SHAZAM!" appeared with slight modifications to his back story.




Additionally "DC" thought they could get around Mick Angelo with the added tag line to the comic's title:
The Original Captain Marvel
But found themselves receiving a "cease and desist" letter from "Marvel Comics". Who had their own "Captain Marvel" with a different origin.. This forced "DC" to make another character change and their subtitle by the third issue now read:
The World's Mightiest Mortal
 

In "DC's" comic world an obvious match up would occur:



On September 7, 1974 the first episode of the live action television show "SHAZAM!" premiered. It was a co-production of "DC Comics" and "Filmation". The show starred Michael Gray as "Billy Batson" and Les Tremayne as "Mentor".



The role of "Captain Marvel" was portrayed by two different actors over the three seasons. The first was Jackson Boswick and then John Davey.



Being billed as the first motion picture since the 1941 "The Adventures of Captain Marvel" is "SHAZAM!" released in April 20919. D.C. pushed it out to beat the release of "Marvel's Captain Marvel". This version of the "Captain Marvel" D.C. story is based upon the 2011 revision of the backstory and gives the viewer a whole new version of the "Marvel Family", if you're not familiar with the comic book series. I recommend the E-Book "Shazam A Celebration of 75 Years". It traces the Fawcett and DC versions history with many great comic stories.



STAN LEE AND MARVEL COMICS GROUP

The original "Marvel Comics Group's", "Captain Marvel" was actually created and first written by Stan Lee and initially designed by "Marvel" artist Gene Golan. As of this writing there have been 15 personalities using that title in the "Marvel Canon". I will present the first seven in their proper appearance order and then comment on the other eight.



Above Stan in 1968 shortly after the first issue was released.


THE FIRST CAPTAIN MARVEL

His name was really "MAR-VELL". He was a citizen of the "Kree Empire" and a "Captain" in the "Kree Imperial Militia". In short he was "CAPTAIN MAR-VELL" and made his first appearance in "Marvel Super-Heroes #12", December 1967. That was 14 years after the last issue of "Fawcett Publications" "Captain Marvel Adventures" and 6 years before "DC" released "Shazam!"




The original artist, Gene Colan, considered the co-creator of "Mar-vell", didn't like the character, or his original green and white uniform.

 Gene Colan.

In his work "Secrets in the Shadows: The Art and Life of Gene Colan", author Tom Field, quoted the artist on that original design:
It was awful – just an imitation of any of the other costumed characters I'd ever done.
"Mar-vell" appeared between 1967 and 1979. Below is the first panel, after the title page, of that first story. Besides "Captain Mar-vell" the reader sees the villain of the piece "Colonel Yon-rogg" on the far left. Standing between the antagonists is "Una"the women "Mar-vell" loves and the reason the colonel wants him dead.



The above panel was immediately followed by:
 

"Mar-vell" finds himself near a United States Air Force missile test site. As the "Kree" spacecraft, the "Hellion", goes into Earth orbit and its commander continues to plan the "Captain's" death.



As "Mar-vell" contemplates how he is to put his mission to spy on the Earth into action. He is attacked from the "Hellion" by "Yon-rogg" with a deadly ray. A small Earth small plane gets between the ray and the Colonel's target and is destroyed. "Von-rogg" stops his attack and "Mar-vell" goes to see if the pilot, "Dr. Walter Lawson", is still alive. He is not and the "Kree" assumes his identity finding himself a rocket physicist, assigned to "Cape Canaveral". Which leads the reader to the first appearance of "Carol Danvers".





In the original series the reader does not know anything about "Carol Danvers" background. Other than the comments made by the General. That she is the
Head of Security for the Cape

Returning to that Robot in the hangar. "Colonel Yon-Rogg" is just as surprised as "Mar-vell" that the "Kree Sentry 459" wasn't destroyed by the "Fantastic Four" as previously told by the comic group. That night, from the "Hellion", "Yon-rogg" remotely activates the "Sentry 459" and its mission of total destruction goes back into affect. It is the colonel's hope that "Mar-vell" will be killed and "Una" will become his.

That action causes "Mar-vell" to leave the hotel he is staying at, under the assumed name of "Marvel C. Marvel", to stop "Sentry 459", before it causes a nuclear explosion from the stored atomic missiles.

MSH-13.jpg

Above is the cover for the issue of "Marvel Super Heroes" in which the battle with "Sentry 459" starts. Below the first issue of "Captain Marvel", May 1968, in which the battle is concluded and he has saved "Cape Canaveral Security Chief Carol Danvers'" life from the rampaging "Sentry".
From that battle forward "Mar-vell" becomes known to the Earth as "Captain Marvel". However, no one thinks of him as an alien, but just another Earth Super Hero with a Secret Identity.



Note the tag line that would appear above the name "Captain Marvel" that helped to separate "Marvel Comics Group's" hero from "Fawcett Publications" original/
MARVEL'S SPACE-BORN SUPER-HERO!
The writing of the series now went to Arnold Drake and Don Heck took over from Gene illustrating the stories.

As with their first meeting shown above. "Carol Danvers" continues to think there's something peculiar about "Dr. Walter Lawson". She asks "Captain Marvel" to help her investigate the doctor and starts to fall in love with him. Her investigation of "Lawson" will lead "Carol" to the home of the real doctor and almost being killed by a thinking robot.

A robot designed and built by the real "Dr. Lawson" and given the strange direction to kill "Dr. Walter Lawson". While "Carol" enters the house two events are taking place. One has "Mar-vell" as "Lawson" being questioned by the local police department and the second takes place on the "Hellion". Which gives "Yon-rogg" another opportunity to plant doubt in the mind of the beautiful "Una".






In a later adventure "Mar-vell" would find himself fighting "Prince Namor, The Submariner". In a story in which "Marvel's Kree anti-hero" finds himself torn between his duty to observe the Earth people as a prelude to a possible attack and his developing emotions for the people.

In that issue an Earth rocket containing experimental lethal viruses is sent off course by "Colonel Yon-rogg". The colonel uses a ray projected from the "Hellion" and the rocket crashes into New York City harbor. "Namor" is attempting to get to the rocket and return the viruses to prove he is not a threat anymore to the "Surface Dwellers". While  "Mar-vell" is ordered to use them on New York City.



In other stories anti-hero "Captain Marvel" takes on members of "The Avengers" such as "The Hulk" and "Iron Man". 

Still in another story something happens to the "Hellion" propulsion system and they must land on Earth to repair it. For one brief moment "Carol Danvers" thinks she saw it, but, driving a car, takes her eyes off the road and almost hits "Dr. Lawson".





A later issue has "Colonel Yon-rogg" accusing "Mar-vell" of having sympathies for the Earth people and putting him on trial. "Mar-vell" has to face "Ronan, The Accuser", a familiar character from either the Comic Universe, or Cinematic Universe in "The Guardians of the Galaxy". Also, "Yon-rogg" once again attempts to convince "Ura" that her love is really in love with "Carol Danvers". 



Later in the saga "Mar-vell" protecting the Earth is finally found guilty by "Ronan, the Accuser" of perceived treason and an execution squad is sent to Earth, but just when the order to fire is given. The squad is attacked by a "Kree" enemy and "Yon-rogg" is forced to help the squad and the man he wanted dead. In the firefight "Una" is mortally wounded and unexpected events transpire.







"Mar-vell's" rocket is hit by another ray from the "Hellian" and spins off into endless space. Thinking he is going to die the "Kree" warrior finds himself saved by a powerful Being named "Zo" and given unbelievable powers. These included the abilities of teleportation to anywhere in the Universe and causing hallucinations. The source of this power is "Mar-vell's" lust for revenge against "Yon-rogg".





The stories now have "Mar-vell" and his anti-hero identity of "Captain Marvell" seeking out "Yon-rogg", but also protecting the Earth people. One character is interesting in the mistakes made by the  change in writers.

In issue #12 writer Arnold Drake created a "Plastic" humanoid thinking monster called the "Manslayer". He has a plastic recreation of the human brain controlled by the "Puppet Master".  The "Manslayer" is only stopped, not by "Captain Marvell", but the "Black Widow" destroying the master control board of the "Puppet Master".


At this point Gary Friedrich took over the writing duties and Frank Springer became the illustrator.
Friedrich picked up Drake's story for issue #13. In that issue the "Manslayer" is revived, but somehow he is now a steel robot with a mechanical brain and self thought. No longer connected to the "Puppet Master".



The series never seemed to catch on with the "Marvel Comic Groups" loyal fans.One of the problems was that the "Zo" character seemed to be a metaphysical rendering of "God" on an LSD trip. Who wanted to use "Mar-vell" to destroy the entire Universe starting with his home world. As "Zo's" repayment for saving "Mar-vell's" life and giving him the powers I mentioned above.







There was now three critical comic issues to the series. The first was issue #16, cover below, the only one partly written by Archie Goodwin and illustrated by Don Heck.



In it "Mar-vell" receives answers from the "Intelligence Supreme" explaining everything that has happened since "Marvel Super-Heroes #12". "Zo" is really the "Kree" second in command "Zarek, the Minister Supreme". He was using hallucinations on "Mar-vell" to make him the unwitting pawn in an attempted take over of the Empire. "Zarek" was assisted by the third in power "Ronan, the Accuser". The two also arranged to have "Colonel Yon-rogg" become the commander of the "Hellian", because of his known love for "Una".

Zarek"
and "Ronan", who are also in front of the "Intelligence Supreme", attempt an escape by using a "Negative Bomb" in the "Judgement Chamber", but it fails to do any damage as the chamber is designed to protect the "Kree" leader. and the two conspirators remain captured.

Another change was made to the writing and illustration team to finish the 16th issue of "Captain Marvel" from the scene I am describing.

Assigned, now, to write "Captain Marvel" was Roy Thomas.



Assigned to illustrate the anti-hero was Gil Kane.



With the help of colorist Michelle Robinson, "Captain Marvel" got a complete make-over. Starting with a new look at the end of issue #16.


In his ending to issue #16. Roy Thomas has the new "Captain Marvel" affected by the "Negative Bomb" and fades away into the "Negative Zone". An antimatter universe that first appeared if "Fantastic Four #51" published on June 10, 1966.



Next the story line in issue #17, October 1968,  also changed in an attempt to increase the readership. Thomas added some more powers to the character and a side kick, familiar to fans of the early "Incredible Hulk", "Richard Milhouse 'Rick' Jones". I always wondered about that middle name and what was going through Stan Lee and Jack Kirby's minds. When they created "Rick" in 1962.



Shades of "Fawcett Publications" original "Captain Marvel Adventures" took place in issue #17. As the only means for"Mar-vell" leaving his imprisonment in the "Negative Zone" is by exchanging atoms with "Rick Jones" through the use of "Nega-Bands". In this story "Jones" became "Mar-vell's" "Billy Batson". When the "Nega-Bands", on each of his wrists, are hit together. Then 17 year old "Rick Jones" replaces "Captain Marvel" in the "Negative Zone" and "Captain Marvel" replaces "Rick Jones" on the Earth. "Mar-vell" can only be out of the zone for three hours though.

Released for November 1968 was "Captain Marvel #18". 


For those fans of "Security Chief Carol Danvers". This is the original story of what happens after her kidnapper "Yon-rogg" shows "Carol" "The Psyche-Magnitron" and explains its powerWhich is followed by the battle between "Yon-rogg" and "Mar-vell" as originally drawn and described. Leading to "Yon-rogg" accidentally shooting "Carol Danvers", a reminder of the death of "Una", and "Mar-vell" making the decision to save "Carol".  As "Yon-rogg" is trapped and buried by the exploding "Psyche-Magnitron". Never to be seen in the rest of this series.



"Rick" and "Mar-vell" next deal with a man using an apartment house as a maze and his tenants as test subjects. One of them is a survivor of Auschwitz and the story has a Holocaust tone to it. Next the two decided to seek out "Bruce Banner" to see if he can separate "Mar-vell" and "Rick". So they don't have to return to the "Negative Zone".
The series was mainly cancelled after issue #21 in August 1970, but the character returned in issue #22 published in 1972.

Then for March 1973, issue #25,  a major revamping again took place. This was done by the man most associated with the character. This was artist and writer Jim Starlin. Starlin was the creator of both "Adam Warlock" and "Thanos".

  



Before Jim Starlin was finished. "Captain Marvell" would stop one of the plans of conquest by "Thanos", have a cosmic being known as "Eos" turn him into the "Protector of the Universe", and interact with almost every "Marvel Comic Group" superhero. However, the title still was hit and miss with fans.

In 1982 Jim Starlin wrote the first "Marvel Comic Group's" graphic novel entitled "The Death of  Captain Marvel". In it Jim Starlin tells how "Captain Marvel" is exposed to a carcinogenic nerve gas which causes the development of cancer from which he dies.







MONICA RAMBEAU

Created by writer Roger Stern, below, "Monica Rambeau" was the SECOND "Captain Marvel".

Roger Stern (Ithacon 2010).jpg

John Romita, Jr. illustrated "Monica".

Description de cette image, également commentée ci-après

The second "Captain Marvel" first appeared in "The Amazing Spider-Man Annual #16" published in October 1982.



Note the box to the left of what appears to be a women's silhouette reading:
Presenting the Exciting Origin of the All-New, All-Different. All-Terrific CAPTAIN MARVEL! 
"Monica Rambeau" was an African American women from Louisiana. She was originally supposed to be a Pam Grier look alike, according to Romita, jr., but ended up, after the executives got involved, looking like a generic beautiful black lady. "Monica" speaks with a Cajun accent and initially was a Police Lieutenant in the New Orleans Harbor Patrol and operates a cargo ship as its Captain.

The following are some of the first panels introducing her character prior to the flashback as to how she became "Captain Marvel".




Two muggers makes the mistake of going up against "Monica Rambaeu" and then "Peter Parker aka: Spider-Man" makes a mistake of approaching her unannounced.



"Spider-Man" thinks he saw "Monica" become a bolt of lightening and then light up one of the tallest buildings in New York. Of course the reader sees what "Peter Parker" doesn't.



And the origin story begins. We meet Harbor Patrol "Lieutenant Rambeau" dealing with sex discrimination.



Next she has an old friend of her Grandfather, "Professor Laclare", visit her unexpectedly.



That visit leads to a plan to find out what is really taking place on the Oil Platform, but.....



the "Professor" doesn't stay in the boat, as "Monica" wanted, and that mistake leads to the creation of the new "Captain Marvel".



After the explosion "Monica Rambeau" is faced with a startling development.  It seems that she has become lightening and somehow left the Oil Platform.



"Monica" is now faced with questions and a decision as applies to the "Professor" and "Felipe Picaro".



And then the realization starts to set in and what she must do.



After saving the "Professor" and taking care of the bad guys. "Monica Rambeau" is told the truth about the effect of the explosion on her. Along with learning the newspapers are calling her "Captain Marvel", because one of the surviving guards from the platform kept mentioning that name.



Which returns the reader to the opening of the story and "Spider-Man". Who thinks "Monica" is an enemy and starts going after her. Meanwhile, she goes to the headquarters of the "Fantastic Four" for help from "Reed Richards". As she is about to explode with the power of over 1,000 atomic bombs. "Ben Grimm" tells her the original "Captain Marvel" would approve of "Monica" taking on his name.

"Richards" is on assignment and "The Thing" tunes a radio receiver to the "Avenger's Tower's" frequency. "Monica" turns herself into the same frequency and rides the radio waves to "Iron Man".  After explanations, "Tony Stark" with the help of "Spider-Man" and "Janet van Dyne aka: The Wasp" disperse the excess energy from "Monica Rambeau's" body.

The story ends with "Monica" aka: "Captain Marvel", becoming the newest member of "The Avengers".


"Monica Rambeau" next appeared briefly in "The Avengers" issue 227. To confirm she was now an "Avenger in Training", test his powers and speed, upset "Hawkeye" because there was another women in the group and to ask about the original "Captain Marvel".



 





Her next appearance was in an Comic Book she scared with "Peter Parker".


The story involved both characters fighting a scientist creating a machine capable of killing billions of people at one time.



During writer Roger Stern's five year run as writer of "The Avengers". "Monica Rambeau" would appear as one of the team.



In issue #279 "Captain Marvel" refreshed the readers familiarity with some of her powers. As she also wrestled withe being nominated as the new team leader after the resignation of "The Wasp".


In the same issue "Monica" discussed the leadership possibility with her parents.



While in another of the non "Avengers" issues, below, "Captain Marvel" discovered that "Felipe Picaro" is still alive and has found a way of sucking off her energy to himself.





The story end with the two  leaving a crater where a mountain once stood and "Picaro" in a coma.

Still in another series of stories with "Dr. Steven Strange". Both "Captain Marvel" and her friend "Wanda Marya Maximoff aka: The Scarlet Witch" help the mystic battle "Count Dracula".


Then there is a tale of time travel, vampire blood and a beautiful 200 year old friend of "The Scarlet Witch" living in New Orleans. The tale took "Monica" to a meeting with "Count Dracula", before she fought him in the present  with "Dr. Strange".






In "Avengers" issue 293, "Captain Marvel" lost her powers.



Honorary member of the "Avengers", "Marrina", the wife of "Namor, the Submariner", changes into a giant sea monster called Leviathan". "Captain Marvel" fighting the creature turned herself into a massive bolt of lightening, but made contact with the water resulting into discharging all her energy into the water.

Later she starts experiencing nightmares. 





As a result of loosing her powers "Monica Rambeau" gets her own cargo ship and is very happy, but wonders will she ever have her powers back? Then the ship is attacked by a group of men looking for a crate she is transporting.

Her crew are killed and the passengers taken prisoner. While attempting to save the passengers "Captain Rambeau" discovers she has some new type of powers, but they seem to be working backwards.



After saving her passengers and visiting "Reed Richards". He runs some tests and the new "Captain Marvel" is back in action with slightly different powers than before.



Later "Monica" fights the woman behind the attack on her ship. She was looking for circuit boards from "Stark Industries" to adopt into fighting armor.



In June 1996 "Monica Lambeau" is still "Captain Marvel". She appears in issue #5 of the limited series "Avengers Unplugged" and by stories end is now "Proton". I will explain when I discuss the Third "Captain Marvell". 

Captain Marvel.

In August 2005 "Monica Rambeau" had another change to her life. Appearing in "New Thunderbolts" issue #9 as "Pulsar".


November 2013 saw "Monica Rambeau" once again changing character in the "Mighty Avengers" issue #1, becoming "Spectrum". 






GENIS-VELL

The THIRD "Captain Marvel" was the genetically engineered son of "Mar-vell". So who was his mother? Her name was "Elysius" and she was created by a sentient computer, on "Titan", the home world of "Thanos", called "ISSAC (Integral Synaptic Anti+/Anionic Computer)". "Elysius" was also one of the "Eternals".

In "Captain Marvel",  issue #59, "Elysius", joins "Mar-vell", "Rick Jones" and "Drax, the Destroyer" to fight "ISSAC".


"Elysius" and "Mar-vell" fall in love and after his death. She decides to artificially impregnate herself with some of her lovers cells and have a son. To protect the boy from her lovers many enemies the two move to another planet. Where "Elysius" artificially implants new memories into the boy "Genis-Vell" to believe he is the son of "Starfox" and also ages him into a teenager.

Below "Starfox".
  

When the readers of the "Marvel Comic Group" first meet the son of the original "Captain Marvel". He is known as "Legacy" and appeared in "The Silver Surfer Annual #6" for October 1993.



In October 1995 the first issue of the six part "Avengers Unplugged" appeared. The six issues ran irregularly until August 1996. Each issue headlined a different member of the "Avengers". In the previously mentioned issue #5 the main characters are "Monica Rambeau", "Genis-Vell" and "Starfox".



Issue #5 opens with an old foe of "The Avengers", called "The Controller", implanting a control disc in "Monica Rambeau's" brain. His/Her target is "Genis-Vell" aka: "Legacy" now calling himself "Captain Marvel" at the same time that "Monica" is known by that same name
Later at a dinner with "Starfox" and two young women. "Monica" appears and kidnaps "Genis-Vell" taking him to another location. Her action seems strange to "Starfox" and other members of the "Avengers". A small group leave to rescue "Mar-vell's" son.

However, "The Vision" finds the kidnapped "Legacy" and "Monica" first. She seems confused and fighting against the mind control. "Vision" removes the brain control disc and ends the battle between the "Captain Marvel's" as the other "Avengers" arrive. The group decides to go after "The Controller". Which is told in issue #6. At the end of issue #5 "Monica Rambeau", in honor of "Mar-vell", becomes the "Avenger" known as "Proton". Leaving "Legacy" clearly with the title of "Captain Marvel".

In December 1995 "Genis-Vell" appeared completely in that role in "Captain Marvel, Volume 3, issue 1". Unlike his father, or "Monica" he is a hero  looking for Adventurer traveling wherever he finds it.

Captain Marvel Vol 3 1

In December 1998 the first issue of 12 in the limited series "Avengers Forever" hit the news stands.



The series was written by Roger Stern



and Kurt Busiek



It was drawn by Carlos Pacheco

Carlos pacheco @ wizard world nyc experience 2013.jpg

and Jesus Merino.



This was the series about "The Destiny War" and brought back "Rick Jones" to be joined with the son of "Marvel", as he had with the father,  by the "Nega-Bands". The plot is excellent and involves the crossing of different time lines. By pulling "Avengers" from the past, present and future to fight against villains from the past, present and future.

In the case of "Captain Marvel" within the 12 issues are the current "Genis-Vell", his father "Mar-vell" and "Genis-Vell's" future self seen below.



The "Immortus" from the future sends his servant "Tempus" to kill the present day "Rick Jones". Who is critically ill, but is the possessor of the "Destiny Force". Which is an Ultimate Mental power contained within "Rick". It was originally unlocked by the "Kree Supreme Intelligence" during the "Kree-Skull War" story arc in the "The Avengers". This series was written by Roy Thomas from June 1971 through March 1972.

In this new series "Rick Jones" is saved by "Kang the Conqueror" in the present, but in the future it is "Kang" who becomes the "Immortus". An example of the timeline crossings in the story.The scope of this series involves over 300 members of "The Avengers", because of the converging time lines.

too many avengers?

"Genis-Vell" develops a "Cosmic Awareness", the ability to know everything within the multiverse, which drives him insane. Part of his insanity is derived from knowing that his unborn son "Ely-Vell" will be evil and trigger an near-extinction future event. Also during this period "Captain Marvel" is finally separated from "Rick Jones".
His sanity returned "Genis-Vell" gives up being "Captain Marvel" and joins the new "Thunderbolts" taking on the name "Proton". He appears in this role in May 2005.Which is another interesting point in the "Marvel Comic Universe" as, I mentioned above, "Monica Rambeau" is still using that name as a member of "The Avengers".
Enter the FOURTH "Captain Marvel".
PHYLA-VELL

Her first appearance is in "Captain Marvel, Volume 5, issue #16", December 2003.



"Phyla-Vell" is the daughter the "Mar-Vell" and "Elysius" and the sister of "Genis-Vell". She was created from the original "Captain Marvel's" cells, because of the success of her brother. The story line was written by Peter David, below. with artist Paul Azacerta.





At one point "Phyla-Vell" fights her insane brother "Genis-Vell" and as a result helps him to regain his sanity. She also attempts to lay claim to being "Captain Marvel", but her brother still attempts to hold onto the name. Eventually she becomes known as "Captain Marvel" after her brother becomes "Proton".


It is heavily suggested that "Phyla-Vell" is a lesbian and in love with "Heather Douglas" aka: "Moondragon". Who first appeared in "Iron Man" issue 54 in January 1973,

Moondragon.jpg

"Phyla-Vell" also was known as "Quasar". Under that name she joins "Adam Warlock" and his fight against his evil self "The Magnus" in the "Marvel Comic Universe's" "Infinity War". She also joined with "Star Lord" in "The Guardians of the Galaxy" accompanied by "Moondragon". Later "Phyla-Vell" would take on the name of "Martyr" 

Below "Quasar" in "Guardians of the Galaxy".




KHN'NR

The FIFTH "Captain Marvel" was "Khn'nr" The character first appeared March 2007 in "Civil War: The Return". This was a one time series set during the first "Marvel Comic Universe's Civil War". There were two "Civil War's".

Going back to the original " Kree", "Mar-vell". My reader knows their major enemies were the "Skrull's".





Near the ending of the first "Comic Universe's Civil War". The "Skrull's" come up with a plan to infiltrate "The Avengers" and conqueror the Earth. A shape shifting "Skrull" named "Khn'nr" is scientifically locked into the form of "Mar-vell" and given technical replications of the "Kree Nega-Bands". The "Skrull" scientists then block his original personality and give him the personality of "Captain Marvel".
When this "Captain Marvel" suddenly appears years after the real "Mar-vell" has died of cancer. He gives "The Avengers" the story that a wrinkle in time had been created. As a result of "Tony Stark", "Reed Richards" and "Hank Pym" creating a prison within "The Negative Zone". As told in an issue of "The Fantastic Four". 

The pro-registration heroes want "Captain Marvel" to join them in the final battle of the "Civil War". Which will end with the imprisonment and that murder of "Steve Rodgers" in "Marvel's Comic Universe".
However, "Khn'nr" goes to Paris and the Louvre Museum and stares at a painting of "Alexander the Great". This was supposed to trigger his memory of being a "Skrull Spy", but it backfires and he thinks he is the real "Mar-vell".
When the "Kree" armada discovers what has happened. The commander sends an execution squad to kill "Captain Marvel". While the "Skrull's" launch their attacks on "S.H.I.E.L.D.", "S.W.O.R.D.", the "Baxter Building", the home of the "Fantastic Four", and "Stark Enterprises".  Even after learning his real identity "Khn'nr" decides to follow the principles of "Mar-vell" and attacks the armada and is barely alive after the battle.

As he dies----continued with the next "Captain Marvel".
NOH-VARR
The SIXTH "Captain Marvel  was the "Kree Noh- Varr". He appeared August 2000 in the first issue of "Marvel Boy".



This was a six issue limited series, but was not the first "Marvel Boy". Before the company became "The Marvel Comic Group" they were "Timely Comics". In the sixth issue of "Daring Mystery Comics", for September 1940, was a character named "Marvel Boy".


The story was by Joe Simson and Jack Kirby. In the story a mysterious shadow reveals that "Martin Burns" possesses the power of "Hercules" and he becomes the first "Marvel Boy". The character would not return until the seventh issue of "USA Comics" for February 1943, but now written by Bob Oksner.

It should be noted that to turn into "Marvel Boy" "Martin Burns" had to say the name "Hercules". Sounds slightly familiar? To add to the confusion. It is believed there were actually two different "Martin Burns" becoming two different "Marvel Boys", but both having the power of "Hercules". The series only ran through part of the 1940's.



Stan Lee and Russ Heath brought back a new "Marvel Boy" first appearing December 1950.



This "Marvel Boy" was "Robert Grayson". Anyone thinking "Dick Grayson"? As an infant his Jewish parents flee Nazi Germany and go to the planet Uranus. There the "Uranian Eternals" protect them. "Robert" returns to Earth to become the super hero "Marvel Boys". The series contained the first appearance of "The Eternals" in what became "Marvel Comics".
"Noh-Varr" brought back "Marvel Boy" to a new audience. He's "Kree Naval Ensign" serving on the "18th Diplomatic Gestalt Interstellar Schooner" with the interesting name of the "Marvel". During the above mentioned "Skrull" invasion of Earth "Noh-Varr" finds the dying "Khn'nr". Who tells the other of the legacy of another "Kree" called "Mar-vell" and known to the Universe as "Captain Marvel".
When "Noh-Varr" joins the "Dark Avengers issue #1" March 2009. It is as "Captain Marvel".

 




In April of 2010 "Noh-Varr" changed his name and look to that of "The Protector" and the name of "Captain Marvel" was not heard of until July of 2012.

CAROL DANVERS THE SEVENTH CAPTAIN MARVEL

The "Marvel Cinematic Universe" has brought a lot of attention to "Carol Susan Jane Danvers".That Universe has a tendency to change the back stories of the characters.

However, especially in the case of "Carol Danvers". There are many side story lines she gets involved in and that would cause confusion to my reader. I am therefore using as straight a line from her first appearance, see "Mar-Vell", to becoming "Captain Marvel" that I can.

I'll start with the introduction of the original "Ms. Marvel" January 1, 1977. The series would run through 1979. There have been four different "Ms. Marvel's" as of this writing and technically seven, if you consider that "Carol" used that alias three different times.



Where "Carol Danvers" has been since her hospitalization after "The Psyche-Magnitron" exploded in the original "Captain Marvel" is unknown to readers of the "Marvel Comic Universe". When she next reappears in her own series conceived and written by Gerry Conway. Only part of that answer comes in bits and pieces.

Gerry Conway, in a portrait taken in the early seventies

"Carol Danvers" is a "Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde" character with "Ms. Marvel".  Both personas are at war with each other to have control of the one body. The return of "Carol Danvers" was also the first "Feminist" character the "Marvel Comic Group" introduced. As 1977 was the time of Gloria Marie Steinem and her magazine "Ms". With the start of a movement that was rocking the 1950's image of a woman's place.



The first page of issue #1 starts with "Ms. Marvel" stopping a robbery. Then becoming "Carol Danvers", but where she came from and what has happened to her is not mentioned.

"Carol Danvers"
gets a job from publisher "J. Jonah Jameson", yes "Peter Parker's" "Jameson", as editor of his magazine "Women", think Steinem's "Ms".  On her first day she meets "Peter's" girlfriend "Mary Jane Watson" and the two hit it off. However, suddenly "Carol" has a severe migraine.



It is during these migraines that "Carol Danvers" becomes "Ms. Marvel". They also bring upon her visions of events, or more like premonitions of events that require the superhero's attention. In the first few stories she is fighting a villain called "The Scorpion". Who attacks "J. Jonah Jameson" for what he has wrote about him.



"Carol Danvers" has been seeing a psychiatrist ,"Michael Barnett", who will become a love interest.


The second issue of "Ms. Marvel" ends with "Carol Danvers" being given an assignment by "Jameson", whom, she has the same type of working relationship as "Peter Parker", to find out who "Ms. Marvel" is:


                                                                                                                                                                 

"Michael Barnett" will discover the truth about "Carol's" relationship to the superhero "Ms. Marvel".





                                                                                                                                                                    Later in the issues an event triggers another memory of "Carol Danver's" life in the Air Force and her first true love Astronaut "Michael Rossi". This is another clue to her past, but was before that fatal kidnapping by "Colonel Yon-rogg".



By this time Chris Claremont was writing the stories.


                                                                                                                                                                  In the November 1977 issue "Carol Danvers" revisited "Cape Canaveral" to see a friend from her "Security Chief" days. It is to be Astronaut "Salia's" first space mission to the "Skylab".
By this time both personas are aware of each other and "Carol" is referring to her premonitions as a "Seventh Sense". After "Salia" has safely been launched into space. "Carol's" "Seventh Sense" kicks in that her friend's in trouble and will die if nothing is done, but the "Ms Marvel" persona becomes aware of a major problem with "Elemental's" from space and time. They were part of  the Greek God's of old. The "Elemental's" are on an island connected to monitoring "Salia's" space flight and they're a danger for the human race. "Carol" is faced with not being able to save "Salia" and a fight in her duality.





                                                                                                                                                                   
       
                                                                                                                                                                  "Magnum" is the Earth elemental, "Hellfire" is the Fire elemental and "Hydron" the Water. While "Hecate" can rip images from the mind of "Ms. Marvel" and bring them into reality. Two of these images are very interesting, because of what they are.





The reader now knows that "Carol Danvers" is familiar with "Kree" weaponry, but is this just a memory past to her from  "Mar-vell" or something else connected to that missing period after her hospitalization? The answer is never given in the original series.

As the battle against the "Elementals" continues on the island. The trouble that "Carol's" "Seventh Sense" felt is coming to pass.



As the battle wages it becomes apparent that "Hecate" is not evil and she joins with "Ms. Marvel" to defeat the three "Elemental Brothers". Once they win two things have occurred. One, sadly, is the death of "Salia" in space. The other is that "Hecate" has brought the personas of "Carol Danvers" and "Ms. Marvel" to the realization that they are one and the same person. The struggle between them is finally over.


                                                                                                                                                                   
In issue #16 "Ms. Marvel" first meets "The Avengers" and saves the sister of "Prince Namor, the Submariner". By the next issue she is a member of the team. Then came issue #19 and what many readers had wanted to see:



Enter "Ronan, the Public Accuser" leading to more of the back story for "Carol Danvers" and that missing period of time.



"Ms. Marvel"
is to return with "Ronan" to the "Kree Homeworld" and its capital "Kree-lar". There she is to be submitted to a mind altering room/ In a flashback we learn how "Carol Danvers" father loves her, but believes a young girl should marry, have children and be a housewife. Her dream of going to College is out. When she turns 18 "Carol" enlists in the U.S. Air Force to get her education. All leading to becoming the first women "Security Chief" at "Cape Canaveral".


There is a complete recap of events from the original series in preparation for her mind to be converted from a human's to a total "Kree Warrior" by order of the "Intelligence Supreme"..



After the person who was known as "Carol Danvers" is submitted to the forces of the "Millennia Room", "Marvell" meets with her.



There's a little of the romance that almost was, again, from the original series.



Chris Claremont now changes the look of "Ms. Marvel" and continues her story, In the April 1979 issue "Ms. Marvel" once again meets her friend "Salia", but she is no longer human.



A little help from "Vance Astro" of the "Guardians of the Universe".

                                                                                                                                                                   

And "Marvel Comics Groups" artist Mike Vosburg tells their readers "You've come a long way baby!"

    


  


Back into her working clothes and "Ms. Marvel" is fighting "Sabertooth" in a New York subway. This was the final issue of the original version of the comic series "Ms. Marvel" in June of 1979.





In October 1981 "Carol Danvers" returned in in the 200th "Avengers" issue with a startling and very debated discovery.



                                                                                                                                                                                     


"Carol Danvers" has her baby and as fantastic as the pregnancy has been. The growth and intelligence of the boy, "Marcus", in a matter of hours, is also unbelievable.

                                                                                                                                                                   

"Carol's" son, "Marcus", admits to having caused her pregnancy. As he comes from a Alternate Universe were time does not have an effect on anyone. His presence in the present causes both the past and future to appear and the only way to restore the time stream is for the aging "Marcus" to leave.  Under a spell cast by "Marcus", "Carol Danvers" decides to go with him and. strangely, not one member of the "Avengers" objects.

After they both leave the present time stream is restored and---



When "Avenges Annual #10" is released. There is a story about how "Spider Women" saves a woman from drowning during a storm.

   
                                                                                                                                                                   

                                                                                                                                                                    She takes the woman to "Professor X" and from the "Jane Doe's" fingerprints. It is discovered that--

 
and the memories of "Carol Danvers" are slowly brought back by the Professor. 
                   
"Carol Danvers" next appeared during the fall of 1982 in "Marvel Super-Heroes".



In this tale of double revenge. It's "Carol Danvers" out to get "Mystique" and "Rogue" for the murder of "Dr. Michael Barnett". This was before either of them became "X-Men" and were still part of the "Mutant Brotherhood" and "Mystique" wanted to put an end to "Ms. Marvel's" interference in the "Brotherhood's" plans.




Mystique" is using "Rogue" to acquire information by absorbing memories. However, "Rogue" is also capturing the powers, or strengths of the members of the "Avengers" she touches.  She makes the mistake of going after "Carol Danvers", with her dual personality and "Kree Knowledge", and overloads. Causing the vengeful "Msytique" to realize, too late, what she is doing to the young girl she loves.

Eventually "Rogue" will find "Dr X" and the "X-Men" and a new path to follow.



Chris Claremont continued to develop the character of "Carol Danvers" and added her to his "Uncanny X-Men" series. She appears in issue #162 for October 1982.



Unknown to the group consisting of "Wolverine", "Lilandra", "Storm", "Kitty Pride", "Colossus", "Nightcrawler", "Cyclops" and "Carol Danvers". They have all become hosts for the "Brood Queen's" eggs to hatch more Queen's.

In the next issue, because of her "Kree DNA" an unexpected transformation occurs to "Carol Danvers".





"Carol Danvers" and "Ms. Marvel" are now "BINARY".




After having disappeared from the above "X-Men" mission for an unspecified period of time. "Carol Danvers" returns to Earth, but is unsure of her position with the "Avengers". She observes the mansion used by the group and makes the decision to enters. She discovers two things. One that there is a new "Captain Marvel" named "Monica Rambeau" and second "Mar-vell" is dead.



In a fit of anger over the idea that someone took the name of "Captain Marvel" and remorse that she wasn't there at "Mar-vell's" death. "Carol Danvers" becomes "Binary" and goes to his resting place in space.



On May 4, 1998 in "The Avengers" Volume 3, issue #4". "Carol Danvers" will became "Warbird".






In a very ridiculous moment the vastly overloaded membership of the "Avengers" gets in each others way attempting to capture one super villain. "Whirlwind" gets away as a result and the governments decision is to cut down the team to a minimal group once more/

"Carol Danvers" wants to be part of the "New Avengers", but not as "Binary". Previously she was told by "Reed Richards" that her current powers are now somewhere between "Ms. Marvel" and "Binary". Over "Tony Stark's" objection "Carol Danvers", now calling herself "Warbird", is part of the new group. His objection, from his own observations, is because  he believes "Carol" is now an alcoholic.

File:Carol Danvers (Earth-616) from Avengers Vol 3 4 0001.jpg

In September 1985, after "Carol" had become "Binary", "Sharon Ventura" becomes the second "Ms. Marvel" in "The Thing" issue #27. 



In March 2006 "Carol Danvers" once again took on the mantle of "Ms. Marvel". When writer Brian Reed updated her look and story line.





In July 2006 the newly returned "Ms. Marvel" joined "Tony Stark's" side in the first "Marvel Civil War". She felt Super Heroes needed to register with the government and become members of "S.H.I.E.L.D."

"Carol's" return as "Ms. Marvel" lasted three years, but we learned more of her back story and how her "Kree Warrior" powers were developed., Also that "Carol" was subjected to racial slurs, because of her pink skin by the "Blue Kree". Who considered themselves superior to the other "Kree Races" such as the "Green" and "White".
During "Carol's" second tour as "Ms. Marvel". She discovers that "Yon-rogg" had survived the explosion of "The Psyche-Magnitron". Apparently a piece of the machine lodged in "Danver's" brain causing a lesion in her head and a means of linking her memories to "Yon-rogg". He's using this to create holographic images of "Ms. Marvel's" old enemies to attack her with. He needs that piece of the machine to complete his project of bringing a recreation of "Kree-lar" to place on top of New York City killing its inhabitants. Of course in the end "Carol" finally does kill "Yon-rogg".

"Dr. Karla Sofen" aka: the Super Villain "Moonstone", became "Ms. Marvel" on June 2009 in issue #38 of the "Dark Reign Ms. Marvel".


Then came issue #47 January 2010 and "Carol Danvers" was back for a third time calling herself "Ms. Marvel". Below the cover with "Peter Parker" as "Spider-Man".
Ms. Marvel Vol 2 47

In July  2012 "Carol Danvers" finally took the name "Captain Marvel" in "Avenging Spider-Man" issue #9. 



Below is "Carol Danvers" on the cover of "Captain Marvel" issue #1 August 2012.

Captain Marvel Vol. 1: In Pursuit of Flight by [DeConnick, Kelly Sue]

This started another series of adventures for her and was written by Kelly Sue DeConnick.

Kelly Sue DeConnick

And Spanish comic book artist Emma Rios,

Emma Ríos - Lucca Comics and Games 2015.JPG

The ladies had taken charge of "Carol Susan Jane Danvers".

THE OTHER CAPTAIN MARVELS

There are several characters that in different "Marvel Comics Group" publications take on the name of "Captain Marvel". This may be for only one issue and under one circumstance.

One is a renegade "Kree" named "Geheneris Hala son Mahr Vehl".
 Mahr-Vehl.jpg

He first appeared March 2005 in "Ultimate Secret" issue #1. In this case "Nick Fury" mispronounced his name "Mahr-vehl" as "Mar-vell" and that led to him being called "Captain Marvel".

A second was in a two issue parody entitled "Ruins" from August and September 1995. In it the "Kree Invasion" that was to have possibly occurred in the original series did. However, the surviving "Kree's" are placed on a reservation over an old Nevada Atomic Bomb test site. One of them is "Mar-vell" who develops cancer and dies.

In a limited series "Fantastic Four: The End" published in January 2007. One of the characters "Kismet". Who was also known as "Paragon", "Her" and "Ayesha" takes on the name "Captain Marvel" in the future.



The "Scarlet Witch" creates an alternate universe in "The House of M". "Carol Danvers" calls herself "Captain Marvel".

Published between December 2005 and April 2006 was "Marvel Zombies".


In the "The Thanos Imperative" July 2010 to January 2011. The main villain is "Lord Mar-vell".


At one time there was "Amalgam Comics" in which both the "Marvel Comics Group" and "DC" shared their characters in crossovers.

In the "Amalgam Universe" young "Billy Mar-vell" shouts the word "Kree" and becomes the crossover "Captain Marvel".




In the "Age of Ultron" crossover on an alternate timeline "Janet van Dyne", as a result of the death of "Henry Pym", becomes another version of "Captain Marvel".


THE CINEMATIC UNIVERSE'S CAPTAIN MARVEL released in London, England February 27, 2019.

The problem, if there is one, with the "Marvel Cinematic Universe". Is that each entry either changes, or leaves out, some characters from the original Marvel Comic Universe. This move is to fit the latest entry into the established story line that started with 2008's "Iron Man".

My point can be easily made by two examples. The major character of "Adam Warlock" is not seen in either the 2018, or 2019 "Avengers: Infinity War" movies. As a result, the actual reason behind the war had to be completely changed to fit the proceeding features. While the character of "James Buchanan 'Bucky' Barnes" in 2011's "Captain America: The First Avenger". Is no longer an orphan of 15 and the sidekick of "Steve Rodgers".
The downside is giving many Worldwide viewers the misconception that the "Cinematic Universe Character" is the original "Comic Universe Character" as envisioned.

Writer Steve Behling creates "Marvel Cinematic Universe" related books. Such as one related to the first "Avengers: Infinity War" motion picture. On February 5, 2019, with illustrations by Veronica Fish, "Captain Marvel: Starforce on the Rise" was released. It is a direct tie-in to the motion picture "Captain Marvel" and tells the story of "Carol Danvers" as "Vers". A character that is not part of the original "Marvel Comic Universe", but is needed for the motion picture.

Captain Marvel: Starforce on the Rise by [Behling, Steve]



Above actress Brie Larson as "Carol Danvers" aka: "Vers" aka:"Captain Marvel".

There are two obvious character changes from  the "Marvel Comic Universe" to the "Marvel Cinematic Universe".
The first is that "Mar-vell" aka: "Dr. Walter Larson" has become a women named still "Mar-vell", but on Earth "Dr. Wendy Larson". Both portrayed by Annette Bening.



The second is that "Monica Rambeau" is an eleven year old girl portrayed by Akira Akbar.



As to the other main characters from the "Marvel Comic Universe".

Jude Law portrays "Yon-rogg". His characters cinematic back ground is part of the purpose of Steve Behling's book. He is not the "Marvel Comic Universe" character.



Samuel L. Jackson is back as "Nick Fury", but note his youthful look and his eyes. The story is set in 1995.



Clark Gregg is back as a young "S.H.I.E.L.D." agent "Phil Coulson".


Lee Pace is back as "Ronan, the Accuser". 


Ben Mendelsohn portrays the new character "Talos 6" of the "Skrulls".


The new version of "Carol Danvers" life. Also a movie SPOILER.

The story opens in 1995 not on Earth, but the planet Hala of the "Kree Empire". The "Kree's" are at war with the "Skrull Shape Shifters". "Vers" of the "Starforce" has both nightmares about an old women and amnesia. Her commander "Yon-rogg" is training the young women to be a member of his team. While the "Supreme Intelligence", also Annette Bening, counsels "Vers" to keep her emotions under control.

On a rescue mission "Vers" is captured by "Talos 6" and subjected to a memory probe on his Earth bound spacecraft. She is able to escape and crash lands on Earth. The crash results on alerting "Fury" and "Coulson". The two "S.H.I.E.L.D." agents meet "Vers" as an attack by the "Skrulls" takes place. During the attack she is able to get the crystal holding her memories that "Talos 6" was studying.

This will led to "Fury" and "Vers" going to "Project Pegasus". The actual project appeared in "Marvel Comics Group's" "Marvel Two in One", from August 1978. The word "Pegasus" stands for "Potential Energy Group Alternate Sources United States". 



"Carl Danvers" was never involved in the story line. However in an alternate Universe story "Geheneris Hala son Mahr Vehl" was as "Captain Marvel".

"Vers"
and "Fury" discover that she was the pilot of a test plane and thought dead in 1989. "Vers" recognizes a picture of "Dr. Wendy Lawson", the designer of the jet engine used in the plane, as the women in her dreams and nightmares.

The two next fly to Louisiana and meet "Maria Rambeau" and her daughter "Monica". "Maria" tells "Vers" her real name is "Carl Danvers" and the two were close in the Air Force.

There is another movie tie-in book by Liza Palmer, below, and illustrated by Hannah Templar.



"Captain Marvel: Higher, Further, Faster", 
also published on February 5, 2019, tells about "Carol Danvers" in the United States Air Force and meeting her life long friend "Maria Rambeau".

Captain Marvel: Higher, Further, Faster by [Palmer, Liza]

In the motion picture "Talos" arrives to  tell "Vers" that "Dr. Wendy Lawson" was a renegade "Kree Scientist" named "Mar-vell". Who was helping "Talos" and the other "Skrulls" find a new home as refugees from the war. He next plays a video that helps to restore "Carol's" memories

Another twist to the "Marvel Comic Universe" comes when it is "Dr. Lawson" who is attempting to destroy her engine and keep it from the "Kree", but before this can be completed. She is shot by "Yon-rogg" as the engine explodes giving "Carol Danvers" her powers, but costing "Carol" her memory. "Yon-Rogg" takes her to his home planet and "Vers" is born.

For those of my readers who might be interested. I also wrote a comparison of the "Marvel Comic Universe" and "Marvel Cinematic Universe" for the motion pictures "Captain America: Civil War" and "Avengers: Infinity War". That article may be read at:

http://www.bewaretheblog.com/2018/07/marvel-studios-captain-america-civil.html



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